ionic and covalent bonding and properties of solids
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Ionic and covalent Bonding and Properties of Solids. Chemical Bonding sites. The Orbitron: a gallery of atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals on the WWW Excellent sites for shapes of molecules:

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Chemical Bonding sites

The Orbitron:a gallery of atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals on the WWW sites for shapes of molecules:

electron dot structures
Electron Dot Structures
  • All chemistry textbooks have a chart like this
loss gain of electron s
Loss & Gain of electron(s)
  • Atoms are stable when they have an “octet” or Nobel gas configuration.
  • Atoms form ions through the gain or loss of electrons
  • Opposites attract and ionic compounds are formed
formation of an ionic compound using electron configurations
Formation of an Ionic Compound Using Electron Configurations
  • Sodium looses 1 electron and chlorine gains one electron to form an “octet” or Nobel gas configuration.
electron dot formula of an ionic compound
Electron Dot Formula of an Ionic Compound
  • Magnesium atoms lose 2 electrons to become stable
  • Nitrogen atoms gain 3 electrons to become stable
  • 3 Mg ions (+6) and 2 nitrogen atoms (-6) = 0 net charge;)
properties of ionic compounds
Properties of Ionic Compounds
  • Usually solid crystals @ room temp (types of crystal structure & coordination number)
  • Generally have high melting points
  • Can conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water
  • Formula represents number of ions in a representative unit
metallic bonds
Metallic Bonds
  • Metals are made up of closely packed cations rather than neutral atoms
  • Valence electrons are mobile (sea of electrons)
  • Metallic bonds consist of attractions of the free-floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal ions
metallic properties structures
Metallic Properties & Structures:
  • Good conductors of electricity
  • Can be drawn into wires (ductile)
  • Can be hammered or forced into shapes (malleable)
  • Arranged in very compact & orderly patterns
  • Alloys are a mixture of 2 or more elements, at least one of which is a metal
single covalent bonds
Single Covalent Bonds
  • Nitrogen needs 3 additional electrons to satisfy its octet but cannot remove them from hydrogen so they share electrons
  • Carbon needs 4 additional electrons to satisfy its octet but cannot remove them from hydrogen so they share electrons
double bonds
Double Bonds
  • Oxygen cannot remove 2 electrons from another oxygen so they share 2 pairs (double bond)
  • Nitrogen cannot remove 3 electrons from another nitrogen so they share 3 pairs(double bond)
coordinate covalent bonds
Coordinate Covalent Bonds
  • Coordinate covalent bond is formed when one atom donates an unshared electron pair to the bond. In this case oxygen donates on of its unshared pairs.
  • This is seen frequently in polyatomic ions!
vsepr valence shell electron pair repulsion theory
VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion theory)

Electron pairs repeland molecules adjust their shapes so that

their valence shell electrons are as far apart as possible

molecular compounds 2 or 3 pairs of electrons around central atom
Molecular Compounds - 2 or 3 pairs of electrons around central atom

Each “-” between atoms represents a shared pair of electrons

covalent polar nonpolar or ionic
Covalent (polar/nonpolar) or Ionic?

Bond type determined by difference in electronegativity and molecular shape

intermolecular forces attractions between molecules1
Intermolecular Forces -attractions between molecules
  • Hydrogen bonds
    • Strongest intermolecular attraction
    • Occurs between the hydrogen atom of one molecule and a very electronegative (O, N, or F) atom in another molecule

Dipole moment u = 1.85 D

Polarizability α = 1.48 x 10-24 cm3






orderly array


random jumble


(all crystalline!)

  • Forces in solids:
  • Metallic: metallic bonds (metal ions in electron sea)
  • Ionic: electrostatic (anions and cations)
  • Network: covalent bonds
  • Molecular: London, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonds

Numerous Unit Cells for Different Crystal Structures

Unit cell: the smallest representation of a crystal that

reproduces the whole crystal.

(do not memorize this table!)


Layered structure of metallic solids

(A and B are same type of atom)


Hexagonal close-packed

metallic structure:

Coordination number is 12

(number of nearest neighbors

for each atom; 6 in same plane

and 3 above and 3 below)

(the other major structure

is cubic close-packed;

Al, Cu, Ag, Au)

Mg, Zn

A metal crystallizes in a cubic cell structure with an edge length of 3.308 A. Its density is 4.401 g/cm3. What is the element?


structures of ionic solids
Structures of Ionic Solids

NaCl unit cell (coordination # 6)

Note: anions and cations are different sizes!

molecular solids
Molecular Solids
  • Sucrose
  • Ice




Network Solids: Strong covalent bonds

Graphite: hexagonal rings of sp2 hybridized carbons

Others: Diamond, ceramics


Properties of Solids:






Substitutional Interstitial

Harder and stronger, but less conductive

catalytic converter
Catalytic Converter

Pt, Rh

2 NO  N2 + O2

2 CO + O2  2 CO2

hydrocarbons + O2 

CO2 + H2O

Pt, Pd

Pt, Pd


honeycomb ceramic coated with Pt, Pd, Rh

semi conductor
  • Si doped with P or As (electron rich)
  • Si doped with B or Ga (electron poor)

No current across

junction with this set-up