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Ionic and Covalent bonding. David A. Katz Pima Community College Tucson, AZ. Ionic Bonding. Between a metal with low ionization energy ( little energy required to remove an electron) and a non-metal with high electronegativity and electron affinity

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Ionic and covalent bonding

Ionic and Covalent bonding

David A. Katz

Pima Community College

Tucson, AZ


Ionic bonding
Ionic Bonding

Between a metal with low ionization energy

( little energy required to remove an electron)

and a non-metal with high electronegativity and electron affinity

( wants to grab an electron towards it)



Lewis structures for ionic compounds

••

2+

2-

••

Ba

O

Ba

O

••

••

••

••

••

Cl

••

••

2+

-

••

Mg

Mg

2

Cl

••

••

••

••

Cl

••

••

Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds

BaO

MgCl2


Properties of ionic compounds
Properties of Ionic Compounds

  • Held together by strong electrostatic forces

  • Opposite charges attract

  • High melting points and boiling points

  • Regular structures – giant ionic lattices

  • When melted or dissolved ionic compounds conduct electricity




Covalent bond
Covalent Bond

  • Between two elements with high ionization energy ( do not give up electrons easily) and high electronegativity ( try to grab the electron to each of them)

  • Here neither atom is willing to give up its electron

  • Instead the nuclei share the electrons between them


Lewis structures
Lewis Structures

  • Lewis structures are representations of molecules showing all electrons, bonding and non-bonding

    Example :

    Li2 O



Multiple covalent bonds
Multiple Covalent bonds

  • More than one pair of electrons can be shared between the same atoms

    O2 N2


Properties of covalent molecules
Properties of Covalent Molecules

  • Contain non-metals

  • Weak bonds

  • Valence electrons are shared between atoms

  • Polar molecules dissolve in polar solvents

  • Volatile

  • Low melting and boiling points

  • Insoluble in water

  • Non polar compounds do not conduct electricity; polar compounds can conduct small amounts of electricity


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