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History and foundation of the internet. Typical IBM mainframe. 1957. 2010. ARPANET Founded by DARPA, Defence Advanced Research Project NPL Founded by the National Physical Laboratory RAND Founded by the RAND corporation, a research firm. CYCLADES

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slide3

ARPANET

    • Founded by DARPA, Defence Advanced Research Project
  • NPL
    • Founded by the National Physical Laboratory
  • RAND
    • Founded by the RAND corporation, a research firm.
  • CYCLADES
    • French network developed by Louis Pouzin to ‘explore alternatives to the ARPANET’ – (Wikipedia.org)
darpa defence advanced research project
DARPA (Defence Advanced Research Project)
  • Developed the ARPANET.
    • ‘First operational packet switching network’ – (Wikipedia)
  • Emphasis on security.
  • IMP computers, (Interface Message Processors) connected to mainframes.
  • IMP’s connected together in an ‘IMP-Subnet’
  • NCP Protocol (Network Control Program)
  • NCP was soon replaced by the TCP due to reliability. (Transmission Control Protocol)
npl national physical laboratory
NPL (National Physical Laboratory)
  • Largest applied physics organisation in the UK
  • Network developed with a heavy emphasis on file transfer
  • Foundation of Packet Switching.
    • Due to UK researchers working closely with US researchers, ideas and research was shared. This lead to the development of Packet Switching
slide6

Leonard Kleinrock

Donald Davies

slide7
RAND
  • ‘Non-profit American think-tank’-Wikipedia
    • (In other words, a research firm.)
  • Paul Baran proposed the Distributed Network concept.

Paul Baran

cyclades
CYCLADES
  • French packet switching network founded by Louis Pouzin.
  • Intended to explore the other alternatives of the ARPANET.
  • Heavy focus on connections between networks.
  • Computers were no longer to interfere with the transfer of data, but simply transfer it.
x 25 protocol
X.25 Protocol
  • The x.25 protocol allowed transmission through the phone companies servers for a set fee per month.
  • Foundation of the modern day ISP
open system interconnection reference model osi
Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI)
  • Attempt to make networks follow regulations that would assure compatibility
slide12
OSI
  • Divides networks in seven layers; Application, Presentation, Session, Network, Data-Link (Or ‘transport’) and Physical layers.
  • OSI eventually standardized the networks, birthing the TCP/IP protocol. Allowing networks to be merged together. Creating the internet.
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