Recovered and False Memories. Recovered and False Memories. Recovered and False Memories 2 sides to the debate:.
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Recovered and False Memories
N.B. 10 mark debate questions = very popular on this topic – make sure you describe & discuss BOTH sides of the debate, as well as refer to ethical, theoretical and legal implications of the issue.
Levinger & Clark (1961)
Aim to investigate repression.
Method – participants learnt associated word list with negative & neutral words.
Results – participants took longer to remember word associated with negative terms
Conclusion – supports idea that negative thoughts are buried in the unconscious
Aim – to investigate repression
Method - Case study of 129 women who had been abused between ages 10mnths to 12 years old. Interviewed 17 years later at ages 18-31.
Results - 31% failed to report their abuse although it was known by medical authorities.
Conclusion – the women had repressed their traumatic memories.
Evaluation – may have been other reasons for failure to report.
Loftus & Ketcham (1994) - Lost in the shopping mall
Aim – to investigate whether false memories can be implanted
Method – small sample of 5 people made to believe they had been lost in a shopping mall when young, with help of parents & family members.
Results – Participants’ memories were uncertain at first, but became stronger.
Conclusion – It is possible to implant false memories
Evaluation – small sample, ethical issues (deception, lack of informed consent), can’t generalise from this to cases of abuse.
Video clip of Elizabeth Loftus discussing the Mall experiment