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Chapter 15: Gender and Sexuality. Defining Some Terms. Sex: Whether you are biologically male or female Gender: All the psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined by one’s gender identity and learned gender roles. Some More Terms.

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defining some terms
Defining Some Terms
  • Sex: Whether you are biologically male or female
  • Gender: All the psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined by one’s gender identity and learnedgender roles
some more terms
Some More Terms
  • Primary Sexual Characteristics: Sexual and reproductive organs
  • Secondary Sexual Characteristics: Features other than sexual and reproductive organs (breasts, facial hair, etc.) that appear at puberty
  • Menarche: Onset of menstruation; a woman’s first menstrual period
even more terms to know
Even More Terms to Know
  • Ovulation: Release of ova (eggs) from the ovaries
  • Menopause: End of monthly menstrual cycles; usually occurs in the late 40’s or early 50’s
  • Gonads: Sex glands; testes in males and ovaries in females
  • Estrogens: Female Hormones
  • Androgens: Male hormones
  • Testosterone: Male sex hormone (androgen) secreted mainly by the testes
dimensions of sex
Dimensions of Sex
  • Genetic Sex: XX or XY chromosomes
  • Gonadal Sex: Ovaries or testes
  • Hormonal Sex: Predominance of androgens or estrogens
  • Genital Sex: Clitoris and vagina in females; penis and scrotum in males
  • Gender Identity: One’s subjective sense of being male or female
prenatal sexual development
Prenatal Sexual Development
  • Androgen Insensitivity: Inherited disorder; male embryos fail to develop male genitals because of an unresponsiveness to testosterone
  • Intersexual Person: One who has dual or ambiguous genital sexuality; having genitals that suggest both sexes
prenatal sexual development cont
Prenatal Sexual Development (cont.)
  • Androgenital Syndrome: Genetic abnormality; adrenals produce excess androgens, sometimes creating a female child with male genitals
  • Biological Biasing Effect: Exposure to prenatal androgens and estrogens may influence the body, nervous system, and later behavior patterns
gender roles
Gender Roles
  • Sometimes known as sex roles; favored pattern of behavior for males and females
    • E.g. girls are expected to be sensitive and boys dominant
  • Gender Role Stereotypes: Oversimplified beliefs (stereotypes) about what men and women are really like
  • Gender roles appear to be learned
behaviors
Behaviors
  • Instrumental Behaviors: Goal-directed behaviors
  • Expressive Behaviors: Expresses or communicates emotion or personal feelings
bem sex role inventory bsri and androgyny
Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Androgyny
  • BSRI: Created by Sandra Bem
    • Consists of 60 personal traits, 20 each for “masculine,” “feminine,” and “neutral”
  • Androgyny: Having both masculine and feminine traits in a single person
    • Androgynous individuals are more adaptable in our society (Bem)
  • Rigid gender stereotypes can restrict behavior, especially males’ (Bem)
sexual behavior and arousal
Sexual Behavior and Arousal
  • Erogenous Zones: Areas of the body that produce pleasure and/or provoke erotic desires (genitals, breasts, etc.)
  • Sexual Scripts: Unspoken mental plans that guide our sexual behavior
  • Sex Drive: Strength of one’s motivation to engage in sexual behavior
    • Alcohol does NOT stimulate the sex drive
sexual behavior cont
Sexual Behavior (cont.)
  • Castration: Surgical removal of the testes or ovaries
  • Sterilization: Surgery (vasectomy or tubal ligation) to make a man or woman infertile
  • Masturbation: Self-stimulation of the genitals that causes sexual pleasure or orgasm
sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation
  • Degree of emotional and erotic attraction to members of the same sex, opposite sex or both sexes
  • Heterosexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to the opposite sex
  • Bisexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to both sexes
homosexuality
Homosexuality
  • Homosexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to the same sex
  • Homophobia: Fear of homosexuality; prejudice, fear, and dislike directed at homosexuals, both male and female
human sexual response masters and johnson s discoveries
Human Sexual Response: Masters and Johnson’s Discoveries
  • Sexual response can be divided into four phases
  • Phases are the same for all people regardless of sexual orientation
excitement
Excitement
  • Initial signs of sexual arousal
plateau
Plateau
  • Physical arousal intensifies
orgasm
Orgasm
  • Climax and release of sexual tension
resolution
Resolution
  • Return to lower levels of sexual tension and arousal
the male sexual response
The Male Sexual Response
  • Ejaculation: Release of sperm and seminal fluid (semen) by the male at orgasm
  • Refractory Period: Short time period after orgasm when males are unable to again ejaculate and/or orgasm
atypical sexual behavior
Atypical Sexual Behavior
  • Paraphilias: Sexual deviations; tend to be compulsive or destructive deviations in sexual preferences or behaviors
some paraphilias
Some Paraphilias
  • Pedophilia: Sex with children; child molesting
  • Sexual Sadism: Deriving sexual pleasure from inflicting pain
  • Sexual Masochism: Deriving sexual pleasure from receiving pain
  • Frotteurism: Sexually touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person, usually in a public place like an elevator or subway
  • Exhibitionism: “Flashing” genitals to unwilling viewers
some signs of child molestation
Some Signs of Child Molestation
  • The child fears being seen nude when such fears were previously absent
  • The child develops physical complaints such as headaches and stomach aches (stress symptoms)
  • The child becomes markedly emotional and irritable
  • The child displays anxiety or shame when any reference to sexual behavior is made
some more signs of child molestation
Some More Signs of Child Molestation
  • The child engages in dangerous risk-taking behavior, such as jumping from high places
  • The child reveals self-destructive or suicidal thoughts, or self-blame
  • The child shows a loss of self-esteem or self-worth
tactics of child molesters
Tactics of Child Molesters
  • Most act alone
  • Most assaults take place in the abuser’s home
  • Many abusers gain access to the child through caretaking
more tactics of child molesters
More Tactics of Child Molesters
  • Children are targeted at first through bribes, gifts, and games
  • The abuser tries to lure the child via touch, talking about sex, and persuasion (Can also take place via email or though chat rooms)
  • The abuser then uses force, anger, threats, and bribes to gain continued compliance
attitudes and the crime of rape
Attitudes and the Crime of Rape
  • Double Standard: Applying different rules for judging the appropriateness of male and female sexual behaviors
  • Acquaintance (Date) Rape: Forced intercourse that occurs in the context of a date or other voluntary encounter
rape myths
Rape Myths
  • A woman who appears alone in public and dresses attractively is “asking for it”
  • When a woman says “No” she really means “Yes”
  • Many women who are raped actually enjoy it
  • If a woman goes home with a man on a first date she is interested in sex
  • If a woman is sexually active, she is probably lying is she says she was raped
forcible rape
Forcible Rape
  • Sexual intercourse that is carried out against the victim’s will, usually under the threat of bodily violence
    • Rape is a crime of violence, brutality, and aggression
    • Men can also be subjected to rape
sexually transmitted diseases std s
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s)
  • A disease that is passed from one person to another by intimate physical contact; a venereal disease
  • Asymptomatic: Having a disease while lacking obvious symptoms.
    • Makes the disease harder to detect
hiv and aids
HIV and AIDS
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): Sexually transmitted virus that disables the immune system
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): Caused by HIV and frequently fatal; the immune system is weakened, allowing other diseases and infections to invade the body
    • White blood cell count is often lowered dangerously
std risky behaviors
STD: Risky Behaviors
  • Sharing drug needles and syringes
  • Anal sex, with or without a condom
  • Unprotected sex (without a condom) with an infected partner
more risky sexual behaviors
More Risky Sexual Behaviors
  • Sex with someone you know, or do not know, who has several partners
  • Vaginal or oral sex with an intravenous drug user
  • Having many sex partners
safer sex practices
Safer Sex Practices
  • Not having sex
  • Not injecting drugs
  • Using a condom
  • Sex with one mutually faithful, uninfected partner
  • Not engaging in sex while intoxicated
  • Reducing the number of sex partners
sexual desire and arousal disorders
Sexual Desire and Arousal Disorders
  • Hypoactive Sexual Desire: Persistent and upsetting loss of sexual desire.
    • Both aspects must be present
  • Sexual Aversion: Feelings of fear, anxiety, or disgust about engaging in sex
erectile disorder
Erectile Disorder
  • Inability to maintain an erection for lovemaking and intercourse; once known as impotence, also known as erectile dysfunction
  • Psychogenic: Having psychological and not physical causes
treatment methods
Treatment Methods
  • Sensate Focus: Type of therapy that directs attention to natural sensations of pleasure and also builds communication skills
  • Viagra: Works for 70-80% of men with Erectile Disorder
orgasmic disorders
Orgasmic Disorders
  • Female Orgasmic Disorder: Persistent inability to reach orgasm during lovemaking
    • The woman may reach orgasm during masturbation, however
  • Premature Ejaculation: Ejaculation that persistently occurs before the male and his partner want it to occur
    • Squeeze Technique: Method for inhibiting ejaculation by compressing the tip of the penis
sexual pain disorders
Sexual Pain Disorders
  • Dyspareunia: Genital pain before, during and after intercourse.
    • Rare in males
  • Vaginismus: Muscle spasms of the vagina making penetration by the penis difficult, painful, or impossible
sexual satisfaction mccarthy 1995
Sexual Satisfaction (McCarthy, 1995)
  • Elementsnecessary for a continuing healthy sexual relationship
    • Sexual anticipation
    • Valuing one’s sexuality
    • Feeling that you deserve sexual pleasure
    • Valuing intimacy
ways to avoid intimacy strong devault 1994
Ways to Avoid Intimacy (Strong & DeVault, 1994)
  • Don’t talk about anything meaningful
  • Never show your feelings
  • Pretend everything is okay, even if you are upset or dissatisfied
  • Always win, never compromise
  • Always keep busy
ways to avoid intimacy cont
Ways to Avoid Intimacy (cont.)
  • Always be right
  • Never argue
  • Make your partner guess what you want
  • Always take care of your own needs first
  • Keep the television set on
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