Chapter 15 gender and sexuality
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Chapter 15: Gender and Sexuality. Defining Some Terms. Sex: Whether you are biologically male or female Gender: All the psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined by one’s gender identity and learned gender roles. Some More Terms.

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Defining some terms
Defining Some Terms

  • Sex: Whether you are biologically male or female

  • Gender: All the psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined by one’s gender identity and learnedgender roles


Some more terms
Some More Terms

  • Primary Sexual Characteristics: Sexual and reproductive organs

  • Secondary Sexual Characteristics: Features other than sexual and reproductive organs (breasts, facial hair, etc.) that appear at puberty

  • Menarche: Onset of menstruation; a woman’s first menstrual period


Even more terms to know
Even More Terms to Know

  • Ovulation: Release of ova (eggs) from the ovaries

  • Menopause: End of monthly menstrual cycles; usually occurs in the late 40’s or early 50’s

  • Gonads: Sex glands; testes in males and ovaries in females

  • Estrogens: Female Hormones

  • Androgens: Male hormones

  • Testosterone: Male sex hormone (androgen) secreted mainly by the testes


Dimensions of sex
Dimensions of Sex

  • Genetic Sex: XX or XY chromosomes

  • Gonadal Sex: Ovaries or testes

  • Hormonal Sex: Predominance of androgens or estrogens

  • Genital Sex: Clitoris and vagina in females; penis and scrotum in males

  • Gender Identity: One’s subjective sense of being male or female




Prenatal sexual development
Prenatal Sexual Development

  • Androgen Insensitivity: Inherited disorder; male embryos fail to develop male genitals because of an unresponsiveness to testosterone

  • Intersexual Person: One who has dual or ambiguous genital sexuality; having genitals that suggest both sexes


Prenatal sexual development cont
Prenatal Sexual Development (cont.)

  • Androgenital Syndrome: Genetic abnormality; adrenals produce excess androgens, sometimes creating a female child with male genitals

  • Biological Biasing Effect: Exposure to prenatal androgens and estrogens may influence the body, nervous system, and later behavior patterns



Gender roles
Gender Roles

  • Sometimes known as sex roles; favored pattern of behavior for males and females

    • E.g. girls are expected to be sensitive and boys dominant

  • Gender Role Stereotypes: Oversimplified beliefs (stereotypes) about what men and women are really like

  • Gender roles appear to be learned


Behaviors
Behaviors

  • Instrumental Behaviors: Goal-directed behaviors

  • Expressive Behaviors: Expresses or communicates emotion or personal feelings



Bem sex role inventory bsri and androgyny
Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Androgyny

  • BSRI: Created by Sandra Bem

    • Consists of 60 personal traits, 20 each for “masculine,” “feminine,” and “neutral”

  • Androgyny: Having both masculine and feminine traits in a single person

    • Androgynous individuals are more adaptable in our society (Bem)

  • Rigid gender stereotypes can restrict behavior, especially males’ (Bem)



Sexual behavior and arousal
Sexual Behavior and Arousal

  • Erogenous Zones: Areas of the body that produce pleasure and/or provoke erotic desires (genitals, breasts, etc.)

  • Sexual Scripts: Unspoken mental plans that guide our sexual behavior

  • Sex Drive: Strength of one’s motivation to engage in sexual behavior

    • Alcohol does NOT stimulate the sex drive


Sexual behavior cont
Sexual Behavior (cont.)

  • Castration: Surgical removal of the testes or ovaries

  • Sterilization: Surgery (vasectomy or tubal ligation) to make a man or woman infertile

  • Masturbation: Self-stimulation of the genitals that causes sexual pleasure or orgasm





Sexual orientation
Sexual Orientation

  • Degree of emotional and erotic attraction to members of the same sex, opposite sex or both sexes

  • Heterosexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to the opposite sex

  • Bisexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to both sexes


Homosexuality
Homosexuality

  • Homosexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to the same sex

  • Homophobia: Fear of homosexuality; prejudice, fear, and dislike directed at homosexuals, both male and female


Human sexual response masters and johnson s discoveries
Human Sexual Response: Masters and Johnson’s Discoveries

  • Sexual response can be divided into four phases

  • Phases are the same for all people regardless of sexual orientation


Excitement
Excitement

  • Initial signs of sexual arousal


Plateau
Plateau

  • Physical arousal intensifies


Orgasm
Orgasm

  • Climax and release of sexual tension


Resolution
Resolution

  • Return to lower levels of sexual tension and arousal


The male sexual response
The Male Sexual Response

  • Ejaculation: Release of sperm and seminal fluid (semen) by the male at orgasm

  • Refractory Period: Short time period after orgasm when males are unable to again ejaculate and/or orgasm


Atypical sexual behavior
Atypical Sexual Behavior

  • Paraphilias: Sexual deviations; tend to be compulsive or destructive deviations in sexual preferences or behaviors


Some paraphilias
Some Paraphilias

  • Pedophilia: Sex with children; child molesting

  • Sexual Sadism: Deriving sexual pleasure from inflicting pain

  • Sexual Masochism: Deriving sexual pleasure from receiving pain

  • Frotteurism: Sexually touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person, usually in a public place like an elevator or subway

  • Exhibitionism: “Flashing” genitals to unwilling viewers


Some signs of child molestation
Some Signs of Child Molestation

  • The child fears being seen nude when such fears were previously absent

  • The child develops physical complaints such as headaches and stomach aches (stress symptoms)

  • The child becomes markedly emotional and irritable

  • The child displays anxiety or shame when any reference to sexual behavior is made


Some more signs of child molestation
Some More Signs of Child Molestation

  • The child engages in dangerous risk-taking behavior, such as jumping from high places

  • The child reveals self-destructive or suicidal thoughts, or self-blame

  • The child shows a loss of self-esteem or self-worth


Tactics of child molesters
Tactics of Child Molesters

  • Most act alone

  • Most assaults take place in the abuser’s home

  • Many abusers gain access to the child through caretaking


More tactics of child molesters
More Tactics of Child Molesters

  • Children are targeted at first through bribes, gifts, and games

  • The abuser tries to lure the child via touch, talking about sex, and persuasion (Can also take place via email or though chat rooms)

  • The abuser then uses force, anger, threats, and bribes to gain continued compliance


Attitudes and the crime of rape
Attitudes and the Crime of Rape

  • Double Standard: Applying different rules for judging the appropriateness of male and female sexual behaviors

  • Acquaintance (Date) Rape: Forced intercourse that occurs in the context of a date or other voluntary encounter


Rape myths
Rape Myths

  • A woman who appears alone in public and dresses attractively is “asking for it”

  • When a woman says “No” she really means “Yes”

  • Many women who are raped actually enjoy it

  • If a woman goes home with a man on a first date she is interested in sex

  • If a woman is sexually active, she is probably lying is she says she was raped


Forcible rape
Forcible Rape

  • Sexual intercourse that is carried out against the victim’s will, usually under the threat of bodily violence

    • Rape is a crime of violence, brutality, and aggression

    • Men can also be subjected to rape


Sexually transmitted diseases std s
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s)

  • A disease that is passed from one person to another by intimate physical contact; a venereal disease

  • Asymptomatic: Having a disease while lacking obvious symptoms.

    • Makes the disease harder to detect


Hiv and aids
HIV and AIDS

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): Sexually transmitted virus that disables the immune system

  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): Caused by HIV and frequently fatal; the immune system is weakened, allowing other diseases and infections to invade the body

    • White blood cell count is often lowered dangerously


Std risky behaviors
STD: Risky Behaviors

  • Sharing drug needles and syringes

  • Anal sex, with or without a condom

  • Unprotected sex (without a condom) with an infected partner


More risky sexual behaviors
More Risky Sexual Behaviors

  • Sex with someone you know, or do not know, who has several partners

  • Vaginal or oral sex with an intravenous drug user

  • Having many sex partners


Safer sex practices
Safer Sex Practices

  • Not having sex

  • Not injecting drugs

  • Using a condom

  • Sex with one mutually faithful, uninfected partner

  • Not engaging in sex while intoxicated

  • Reducing the number of sex partners



Sexual desire and arousal disorders
Sexual Desire and Arousal Disorders

  • Hypoactive Sexual Desire: Persistent and upsetting loss of sexual desire.

    • Both aspects must be present

  • Sexual Aversion: Feelings of fear, anxiety, or disgust about engaging in sex


Erectile disorder
Erectile Disorder

  • Inability to maintain an erection for lovemaking and intercourse; once known as impotence, also known as erectile dysfunction

  • Psychogenic: Having psychological and not physical causes


Treatment methods
Treatment Methods

  • Sensate Focus: Type of therapy that directs attention to natural sensations of pleasure and also builds communication skills

  • Viagra: Works for 70-80% of men with Erectile Disorder


Orgasmic disorders
Orgasmic Disorders

  • Female Orgasmic Disorder: Persistent inability to reach orgasm during lovemaking

    • The woman may reach orgasm during masturbation, however

  • Premature Ejaculation: Ejaculation that persistently occurs before the male and his partner want it to occur

    • Squeeze Technique: Method for inhibiting ejaculation by compressing the tip of the penis


Sexual pain disorders
Sexual Pain Disorders

  • Dyspareunia: Genital pain before, during and after intercourse.

    • Rare in males

  • Vaginismus: Muscle spasms of the vagina making penetration by the penis difficult, painful, or impossible


Sexual satisfaction mccarthy 1995
Sexual Satisfaction (McCarthy, 1995)

  • Elementsnecessary for a continuing healthy sexual relationship

    • Sexual anticipation

    • Valuing one’s sexuality

    • Feeling that you deserve sexual pleasure

    • Valuing intimacy


Ways to avoid intimacy strong devault 1994
Ways to Avoid Intimacy (Strong & DeVault, 1994)

  • Don’t talk about anything meaningful

  • Never show your feelings

  • Pretend everything is okay, even if you are upset or dissatisfied

  • Always win, never compromise

  • Always keep busy


Ways to avoid intimacy cont
Ways to Avoid Intimacy (cont.)

  • Always be right

  • Never argue

  • Make your partner guess what you want

  • Always take care of your own needs first

  • Keep the television set on


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