Chapter 15 gender and sexuality
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Chapter 15: Gender and Sexuality. Defining Some Terms. Sex: Whether you are biologically male or female Gender: All the psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined by one’s gender identity and learned gender roles. Some More Terms.

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Chapter 15: Gender and Sexuality

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Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Chapter 15: Gender and Sexuality


Defining some terms

Defining Some Terms

  • Sex: Whether you are biologically male or female

  • Gender: All the psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined by one’s gender identity and learnedgender roles


Some more terms

Some More Terms

  • Primary Sexual Characteristics: Sexual and reproductive organs

  • Secondary Sexual Characteristics: Features other than sexual and reproductive organs (breasts, facial hair, etc.) that appear at puberty

  • Menarche: Onset of menstruation; a woman’s first menstrual period


Even more terms to know

Even More Terms to Know

  • Ovulation: Release of ova (eggs) from the ovaries

  • Menopause: End of monthly menstrual cycles; usually occurs in the late 40’s or early 50’s

  • Gonads: Sex glands; testes in males and ovaries in females

  • Estrogens: Female Hormones

  • Androgens: Male hormones

  • Testosterone: Male sex hormone (androgen) secreted mainly by the testes


Dimensions of sex

Dimensions of Sex

  • Genetic Sex: XX or XY chromosomes

  • Gonadal Sex: Ovaries or testes

  • Hormonal Sex: Predominance of androgens or estrogens

  • Genital Sex: Clitoris and vagina in females; penis and scrotum in males

  • Gender Identity: One’s subjective sense of being male or female


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Figure 15.1


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Figure 15.2


Prenatal sexual development

Prenatal Sexual Development

  • Androgen Insensitivity: Inherited disorder; male embryos fail to develop male genitals because of an unresponsiveness to testosterone

  • Intersexual Person: One who has dual or ambiguous genital sexuality; having genitals that suggest both sexes


Prenatal sexual development cont

Prenatal Sexual Development (cont.)

  • Androgenital Syndrome: Genetic abnormality; adrenals produce excess androgens, sometimes creating a female child with male genitals

  • Biological Biasing Effect: Exposure to prenatal androgens and estrogens may influence the body, nervous system, and later behavior patterns


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Figure 15.3


Gender roles

Gender Roles

  • Sometimes known as sex roles; favored pattern of behavior for males and females

    • E.g. girls are expected to be sensitive and boys dominant

  • Gender Role Stereotypes: Oversimplified beliefs (stereotypes) about what men and women are really like

  • Gender roles appear to be learned


Behaviors

Behaviors

  • Instrumental Behaviors: Goal-directed behaviors

  • Expressive Behaviors: Expresses or communicates emotion or personal feelings


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Figure 15.4


Bem sex role inventory bsri and androgyny

Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Androgyny

  • BSRI: Created by Sandra Bem

    • Consists of 60 personal traits, 20 each for “masculine,” “feminine,” and “neutral”

  • Androgyny: Having both masculine and feminine traits in a single person

    • Androgynous individuals are more adaptable in our society (Bem)

  • Rigid gender stereotypes can restrict behavior, especially males’ (Bem)


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Figure 15.6


Sexual behavior and arousal

Sexual Behavior and Arousal

  • Erogenous Zones: Areas of the body that produce pleasure and/or provoke erotic desires (genitals, breasts, etc.)

  • Sexual Scripts: Unspoken mental plans that guide our sexual behavior

  • Sex Drive: Strength of one’s motivation to engage in sexual behavior

    • Alcohol does NOT stimulate the sex drive


Sexual behavior cont

Sexual Behavior (cont.)

  • Castration: Surgical removal of the testes or ovaries

  • Sterilization: Surgery (vasectomy or tubal ligation) to make a man or woman infertile

  • Masturbation: Self-stimulation of the genitals that causes sexual pleasure or orgasm


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Figure 15.7


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Figure 15.8


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Figure 15.9


Sexual orientation

Sexual Orientation

  • Degree of emotional and erotic attraction to members of the same sex, opposite sex or both sexes

  • Heterosexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to the opposite sex

  • Bisexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to both sexes


Homosexuality

Homosexuality

  • Homosexual: Romantically and erotically attracted to the same sex

  • Homophobia: Fear of homosexuality; prejudice, fear, and dislike directed at homosexuals, both male and female


Human sexual response masters and johnson s discoveries

Human Sexual Response: Masters and Johnson’s Discoveries

  • Sexual response can be divided into four phases

  • Phases are the same for all people regardless of sexual orientation


Excitement

Excitement

  • Initial signs of sexual arousal


Plateau

Plateau

  • Physical arousal intensifies


Orgasm

Orgasm

  • Climax and release of sexual tension


Resolution

Resolution

  • Return to lower levels of sexual tension and arousal


The male sexual response

The Male Sexual Response

  • Ejaculation: Release of sperm and seminal fluid (semen) by the male at orgasm

  • Refractory Period: Short time period after orgasm when males are unable to again ejaculate and/or orgasm


Atypical sexual behavior

Atypical Sexual Behavior

  • Paraphilias: Sexual deviations; tend to be compulsive or destructive deviations in sexual preferences or behaviors


Some paraphilias

Some Paraphilias

  • Pedophilia: Sex with children; child molesting

  • Sexual Sadism: Deriving sexual pleasure from inflicting pain

  • Sexual Masochism: Deriving sexual pleasure from receiving pain

  • Frotteurism: Sexually touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person, usually in a public place like an elevator or subway

  • Exhibitionism: “Flashing” genitals to unwilling viewers


Some signs of child molestation

Some Signs of Child Molestation

  • The child fears being seen nude when such fears were previously absent

  • The child develops physical complaints such as headaches and stomach aches (stress symptoms)

  • The child becomes markedly emotional and irritable

  • The child displays anxiety or shame when any reference to sexual behavior is made


Some more signs of child molestation

Some More Signs of Child Molestation

  • The child engages in dangerous risk-taking behavior, such as jumping from high places

  • The child reveals self-destructive or suicidal thoughts, or self-blame

  • The child shows a loss of self-esteem or self-worth


Tactics of child molesters

Tactics of Child Molesters

  • Most act alone

  • Most assaults take place in the abuser’s home

  • Many abusers gain access to the child through caretaking


More tactics of child molesters

More Tactics of Child Molesters

  • Children are targeted at first through bribes, gifts, and games

  • The abuser tries to lure the child via touch, talking about sex, and persuasion (Can also take place via email or though chat rooms)

  • The abuser then uses force, anger, threats, and bribes to gain continued compliance


Attitudes and the crime of rape

Attitudes and the Crime of Rape

  • Double Standard: Applying different rules for judging the appropriateness of male and female sexual behaviors

  • Acquaintance (Date) Rape: Forced intercourse that occurs in the context of a date or other voluntary encounter


Rape myths

Rape Myths

  • A woman who appears alone in public and dresses attractively is “asking for it”

  • When a woman says “No” she really means “Yes”

  • Many women who are raped actually enjoy it

  • If a woman goes home with a man on a first date she is interested in sex

  • If a woman is sexually active, she is probably lying is she says she was raped


Forcible rape

Forcible Rape

  • Sexual intercourse that is carried out against the victim’s will, usually under the threat of bodily violence

    • Rape is a crime of violence, brutality, and aggression

    • Men can also be subjected to rape


Sexually transmitted diseases std s

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD’s)

  • A disease that is passed from one person to another by intimate physical contact; a venereal disease

  • Asymptomatic: Having a disease while lacking obvious symptoms.

    • Makes the disease harder to detect


Hiv and aids

HIV and AIDS

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): Sexually transmitted virus that disables the immune system

  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): Caused by HIV and frequently fatal; the immune system is weakened, allowing other diseases and infections to invade the body

    • White blood cell count is often lowered dangerously


Std risky behaviors

STD: Risky Behaviors

  • Sharing drug needles and syringes

  • Anal sex, with or without a condom

  • Unprotected sex (without a condom) with an infected partner


More risky sexual behaviors

More Risky Sexual Behaviors

  • Sex with someone you know, or do not know, who has several partners

  • Vaginal or oral sex with an intravenous drug user

  • Having many sex partners


Safer sex practices

Safer Sex Practices

  • Not having sex

  • Not injecting drugs

  • Using a condom

  • Sex with one mutually faithful, uninfected partner

  • Not engaging in sex while intoxicated

  • Reducing the number of sex partners


Chapter 15 gender and sexuality

Table 15.2


Sexual desire and arousal disorders

Sexual Desire and Arousal Disorders

  • Hypoactive Sexual Desire: Persistent and upsetting loss of sexual desire.

    • Both aspects must be present

  • Sexual Aversion: Feelings of fear, anxiety, or disgust about engaging in sex


Erectile disorder

Erectile Disorder

  • Inability to maintain an erection for lovemaking and intercourse; once known as impotence, also known as erectile dysfunction

  • Psychogenic: Having psychological and not physical causes


Treatment methods

Treatment Methods

  • Sensate Focus: Type of therapy that directs attention to natural sensations of pleasure and also builds communication skills

  • Viagra: Works for 70-80% of men with Erectile Disorder


Orgasmic disorders

Orgasmic Disorders

  • Female Orgasmic Disorder: Persistent inability to reach orgasm during lovemaking

    • The woman may reach orgasm during masturbation, however

  • Premature Ejaculation: Ejaculation that persistently occurs before the male and his partner want it to occur

    • Squeeze Technique: Method for inhibiting ejaculation by compressing the tip of the penis


Sexual pain disorders

Sexual Pain Disorders

  • Dyspareunia: Genital pain before, during and after intercourse.

    • Rare in males

  • Vaginismus: Muscle spasms of the vagina making penetration by the penis difficult, painful, or impossible


Sexual satisfaction mccarthy 1995

Sexual Satisfaction (McCarthy, 1995)

  • Elementsnecessary for a continuing healthy sexual relationship

    • Sexual anticipation

    • Valuing one’s sexuality

    • Feeling that you deserve sexual pleasure

    • Valuing intimacy


Ways to avoid intimacy strong devault 1994

Ways to Avoid Intimacy (Strong & DeVault, 1994)

  • Don’t talk about anything meaningful

  • Never show your feelings

  • Pretend everything is okay, even if you are upset or dissatisfied

  • Always win, never compromise

  • Always keep busy


Ways to avoid intimacy cont

Ways to Avoid Intimacy (cont.)

  • Always be right

  • Never argue

  • Make your partner guess what you want

  • Always take care of your own needs first

  • Keep the television set on


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