The javanese gamelan
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The Javanese Gamelan. Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia. Culture/Religion. Great diversity Major religions are Islam and Buddhism followed by Christianity Before 13 th century CE, Hinduism and Buddhism Trade, missionaries, ruling class. Indonesia. Archipelago of ~17,508 islands

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The Javanese Gamelan

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The javanese gamelan

The Javanese Gamelan

Southeast Asia


Southeast asia

Southeast Asia


Culture religion

Culture/Religion

  • Great diversity

  • Major religions are Islam and Buddhism followed by Christianity

  • Before 13th century CE, Hinduism and Buddhism

  • Trade, missionaries, ruling class


Indonesia

Indonesia

  • Archipelago of ~17,508 islands

  • Over 238 million people

  • Shares borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia

  • Important trade region since at least 7th century


Indonesia continued

Indonesia continued…

  • Dutch colonialism

  • Turbulent history

  • Distinct ethnic, linguistic, religious groups

  • Javanese largest ethnic group

  • “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” “Unity in Diversity”


The javanese gamelan

Java

  • 100 million people

  • ~75 million ethnically Javanese

  • Most Muslim though a minority practice

  • Mostly a farming society

    • Wet rice agriculture


Jakarta batavia

Jakarta (Batavia)


Dutch east india company

Dutch East India Company


Regional trade network

Regional Trade Network


Jakarta continued

Jakarta continued…


Yogjakarta

Yogjakarta


Bank of indonesia

Bank of Indonesia


Yogjakarta palace

Yogjakarta Palace


Yogjakarta palace gamelan

Yogjakarta Palace Gamelan


Gamelan

Gamelan

  • A musical ensemble from Indonesia featuring a variety of instruments

  • Refers to a set of instruments unified by their tuning and often by their decorative carving and painting

  • Gamels “to strike or hammer”


Gamelan continued

Gamelan continued…

  • Predates Hindu-Buddhist culture that dominates earliest records of Indonesia

  • Developed into current form during Majapahit Empire (1200-1500)

  • Javanese mythology- Created by Sang Hyang Guru in Ska era 167 (c. AD 230)


Different types of gamelan balinese bamboo gamelan

Different types of gamelanBalinese Bamboo Gamelan


Sundanese gamelan degung

Sundanese Gamelan Degung


Javanese gamelan

Javanese Gamelan


Gamelan tuning and modes

Gamelan Tuning and Modes

Laras (tuning system)

Slendro: a five-note (pentatonic) tuning

Pélog: a seven-note tuning

Pathet (Modes)*

Slendro Nem Pélog Nem

Slendro SangaPélog Lima

Slendro Manyura Pélog Barang

*Modes correspond to Wayang Kulit performance:

Nem from 9:00 PM to Midnight;

Sanga from Midnight to 3:00 AM;

Manyura from 3:00 AM to 6:00 AM.


Gamelan musical structure

Gamelan Musical Structure

  • Colotomic Structure: based upon a circular perception of time.

  • Reflects the persistence of Hindu-Buddhist conceptions of time introduced to Java during the first millennium C.E.

  • All instruments in the gamelan must play important structural or “auspicious” notes together. These “coincidences” carry important meaning in Javanese culture.


Gamelan musical structure1

Gamelan Musical Structure

  • The sounding of the gong agung with the kenong marks the musical instance of the greatest weight or importance. It is at this point that the gendhing(piece) may begin or end.

  • Lesser points of coincidence also exist (listed in order of importance):

    Kenong stroke

    kethuk stroke

    Kempul stroke


Gamelan texture

Gamelan Texture

Three layers:

Structural: gong and kenong as well as kethuk/kempyang

Balungan: basic melodic content

Elaboration: realizes “inner melody”


Punctuating instruments

Punctuating Instruments

Kempul

Gong Agung & Siyem

Kenong


Punctuating and time keeping instruments

Punctuating and Time Keeping Instruments

Kethuk

Kempyang

Kendhang

(Played by

the conductor

of the gamelan

Orchestra)


Sarons balungan instruments

Sarons: Balungan Instruments

Saron Panarus or “Peking”

Saron Barung

Demung


Elaborating instruments melodic leaders of the gamelan

Elaborating Instruments: Melodic Leaders of the Gamelan

Rebab

Bonang Barung and Bonang Panarus


Soft style elaborating instruments

“Soft-Style” Elaborating Instruments

Four Sulings (different tunings)

Gender (three tunings)

Gambang


The drums

The Drums


The gongs

The Gongs


Kempul

Kempul


Kenong

Kenong


Kethuk

Kethuk


Kampyang

Kampyang


Demung

Demung


Saron

Saron


Peking

Peking


Gend r

Gendèr


Slenthem

Slenthem


Bonang

Bonang


Lancaran bubaran kembang pacar laras p log pathet nem balungan level sarons

Lancaran bubaran Kembang Pacar, laras pélog pathet nem Balungan Level: Sarons


Lancaran bubaran kembang pacar irama level bonang barung

Lancaran bubaran Kembang Pacar, IRAMA Level: Bonang Barung


Lancaran bubaran kembang pacar irama level bonang panarus

Lancaran bubaran Kembang Pacar, IRAMA Level: Bonang Panarus


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