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Causes of the American Revolution. 1750 to 1775. Spread of New Ideas. Education Spreads- The Enlightenment- The Great Awakening- All contribute to changes in thought amongst the colonists. Spread of New Ideas Education Spreads.

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spread of new ideas
Spread of New Ideas
  • Education Spreads-
  • The Enlightenment-
  • The Great Awakening-
  • All contribute to changes in thought amongst the colonists
spread of new ideas education spreads
Spread of New IdeasEducation Spreads
  • Puritans were required to teach their children and servants to read- able to read the Bible
  • Massachusetts law required towns to provide:

-elementary school if there were 50 families

- grammar school if there were 100 families

  • First “Public Schools” in America (supported by taxes)
  • In other colonies Churches ran the schools
    • Dutch Reformed Church in New Netherland (NY & NJ)
    • Quakers in Pa
spread of new ideas education spreads1
Spread of New IdeasEducation Spreads
  • Education was mostly for boys- some schools accepted girls- some did not
  • African Americans- generally not allowed to get an education in most colonies
    • Anglican church in NY ran school for Free African Americans and Native Americans
    • Anglican and Quaker missionaries sometimes taught slaves to read
    • Slave codes in south made this illegal
spread of new ideas education spreads2
Spread of New IdeasEducation Spreads
  • Upper level education-

- Grammar schools (similar to today’s high schools) were mostly to prepare boys for college

- Colleges were originally founded to educate men for the Ministry

- Harvard in Boston

- William and Mary in Virginia

implications for revolution
Implications for Revolution
  • As more people become literate, they are able to access new and different ideas as they appear. This prepares them to accept and understand the ideas that influence colonial thought as they struggle with their identity as British citizens or something different.
spread of new ideas enlightenment
Spread of New IdeasEnlightenment
  • Enlightenment-
    • Intellectual movement that began in late 1600’s
    • European thinkers believed that all problems could be solved with “human reason”.
    • Looked for “natural laws” that governed politics, society and economics.
    • Reached it’s peak in France in mid- 1700’s
spread of new ideas enlightenment1
Spread of New IdeasEnlightenment
  • John Locke-
    • Englishman who published “Two Treatises on Government”
    • Argued that people have certain “natural rights”
      • Right to Life, liberty, property
      • Believed these rights could not be taken away
      • Argued against “Divine Right”- belief that monarchs get their authority to rule directly from God and any rights that people have come from the monarchs
      • Argued that people formed governments in order to protect their rights
spread of new ideas enlightenment2
Spread of New IdeasEnlightenment
  • Locke’s conclusion-

Because government exists to protect the rights of the people, if a monarch violates those rights, the people have a right to overthrow the monarch (government).

spread of new ideas enlightenment3
Spread of New IdeasEnlightenment
  • Montesquieu-
    • French thinker of the Enlightenment
    • Wrote “Spirit of Laws”
      • Argued that powers of government should be clearly defined and limited
      • Favored separation of powers

Division of the power of government into separate branches

- Led to executive, legislative, and judicial branches of gov’t

spread of new ideas great awakening
Spread of New IdeasGreat Awakening
  • Religious Revival of 1730’s and 1740’s

- reaction to “decline in religious zeal” in the colonies

  • Impact of Great Awakening-
    • Led to rise of many new churches (denominations)
    • Led to more religious tolerance in colonies
  • Reinforced democratic ideas- if people could decide how to worship god, they could decide how to govern themselves
trouble on the frontier french and indian war
Trouble on the FrontierFrench and Indian War

Causes

  • British and French land claims are in conflict- Ohio River Valley is epicenter of dispute
    • British colonists move west to find less expensive land
    • Indian’s hunting and trapping lands are invaded
  • British and French (and Indians) use the land in incompatible ways
  • French begin to build forts in Ohio River Valley
  • British request that they cease and desist
  • British begin to build forts in region as well
french and indian war effects
French and Indian WarEffects

-British are in serious debt from the war.

-French cede all lands in North America to Britain

- Colonists want to move into new lands

-Colonists take pride in their success and feel more connected to each other than prior to the war

join or die
Join or Die

What does this illustration symbolize?

colonists resist tighter control
Colonists Resist Tighter Control
  • Pontiac’s War-
    • leader of Ottawa nation
    • led raids against English settlers and British Forts in Ohio Valley after the F & I War
    • 2000 settlers killed in raids
    • Settlers retaliate and indiscriminately kill Indians
    • British forces finally defeat Pontiac
    • War costs British more money
proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763

British response to Pontiac’s War

Created a line down Appalachian Mts

Forbid settlers from moving west of that line

Required settlers who had settled west of the line to move back

Proclamation of 1763 was universally ignored by settlers

British were unable to enforce the proclamation

RESULTS of PROCLAMATION

Colonists were angered

Colonists ignored Proclamation

Colonists continue to grow closer to each other, and further from English rule.

british rule conflict
British Rule Conflict
  • British institute a series of Acts (laws) which impose taxes on colonists
    • most designed to pay for war Debt
    • Some to lessen financial burden of protecting colonies
    • Others to punish colonists for their actions
    • Led to Escalating tensions between Britain and her colonial subjects
slide18

Sugar Act

    • put duty, or import tax on molasses and other things made from Sugar Cane
    • To raise money to pay war debt
    • Called for harsh punishments for smuggling

Led to smuggling, and protests

slide19

Quartering Act

- required colonists to house and feed British soldiers in their homes

- angered colonists

they saw it as a tax

they felt it violated their right to property (granted to them in the English Bill of Rights)

Colonists Protested

slide20

Stamp Act

  • Required colonists to buy stamp to show tax paid on many paper products, ie. Newspapers, wills, deeds, insurance policies, contracts, playing cards
  • Colonists reacted by
    • Colonial legislatures passed laws and resolutions
    • People organized boycotts
    • Organized Stamp Act Congress
stamp act congress
Stamp Act Congress
  • Delegates from 9 colonies met in New York
  • Sent a petition to to the King and Parliament
  • Demanded the end of the Sugar and Stamp Acts

Parliament repealed the Stamp Act

Then issued the Declaratory Act which declared that Parliament had authority over the colonies

townshend acts
Townshend Acts
  • Put a small tax on all items brought into the colonies
  • Allowed Writs of Assistance- court order allowing British officials to make searches of ships with out saying what they were looking for
  • Colonists saw them as a violation of long held rights
  • Colonists boycotted British goods
slide23

Parliament eventually repealed the Townshend Acts, but kept the tax on tea

    • To demonstrate their authority to tax the colonies
  • Too little, too late

Led to the Boston Massacre-

-crowd of unemployed workers surrounded a small squad of British soldiers- pelted them with rocks and ice-balls

-frightened soldiers fired into crowd- killed 5, wounded another 6

response to boston massacre
Response to Boston Massacre
  • Gov. Hutchinson had the 9 soldiers tried for murder-
  • John Adams (Son of Liberty) defended them in court- knew that we wanted to be a country of law

2 soldiers were convicted and had thumbs branded

  • Colonists established Committees of Correspondence to keep colonist in other colonies informed of British actions

Information spread by Committes of Correspondence helped unite colonies against Britain

slide28

From Protest to Rebellion

  • Tea Act
  • Boston Tea Party
  • Intolerable Acts
  • Quebec Act
  • Continental Congress
  • Shot Heard Round the World
from protest to rebellion tea act
From Protest to RebellionTea Act

- intended to help the struggling British East India Tea Company

-colonial boycott of tea really hurt company

-Tea Act lowered price of tea, but eliminated colonial merchants from product stream and created a monopoly for BEITC

- angered colonists – some sold Dutch tea being smuggled into colonies

from protest to rebellion boston tea party
From Protest to RebellionBoston Tea Party

- Sons of Liberty organized to stop unloading of British Tea from ships

- No tea was unloaded in New York, Philly or other ports

- Mass. Gov. Hutchinson tried to force the unloading of tea by refusing to issue return papers

- SOL- dressed as natives boarded the ships and dumped tea overboard into harbor… destroying thousands of dollars worth of tea

from protest to rebellion intolerable acts
From Protest to Rebellion Intolerable Acts
  • Britain’s response to Boston Tea Party
  • 4 lawsthat were so harsh the colonists called them Intolerable Acts

- Closed the Port of Boston

- Increased Powers of Royal Governor

- Abolished upper house of Mass. Legislature and cut the power of town meetings (persons charged with murdering a British Colonial official would be tried in England instead of in the colonies)

- Strengthened the 1765 Quartering Act

from protest to rebellion
From Protest to Rebellion
  • Quebec Act- Claimed lands between the Ohio and Missouri Rivers as part of Canada-

- took western claims from colonies

- blocked colonists from moving west

from protest to rebellion colonial reaction to intolerable acts
From Protest to RebellionColonial Reaction to Intolerable Acts
  • Other colonies began to send food and supplies to Boston by land since port was shut down
  • Committees of Correspondence organized a meeting to discuss and plan next step-
from protest to rebellion first continental congress
From Protest to RebellionFirst Continental Congress
  • 12 of 13 colonies sent delegates- Once again, Georgia did not attend
  • Took place in Philadelphia in September and October 1774
from protest to rebellion actions taken by first continental congress
From Protest to RebellionActions taken by First Continental Congress
  • Demanded repeal of Intolerable Acts
  • Declared that the colonies had the right to tax and govern themselves
  • Called for formation and training of militias in each colony
  • Called for new boycotts of British goods
  • Agreed to meet again in May 1775 if demands were not met
from protest to rebellion shot heard round the world
From Protest to RebellionShot Heard ‘Round the World
  • Britain responded to demands of First Cont. Congress with use of Force
  • British General Thos. Gage heard that militia was storing gun and shot in Concord
  • Sent 700 troops to seize the weapons
  • Paul Revere and William Dawes rode through the countryside to warn the Minutemen that the British were coming
from protest to rebellion lexington
From Protest to Rebellion Lexington …
  • 77 Minutemen were waiting at Lexington Green for the British
  • The two sides squared off across the Green
  • British commander ordered the Minutemen to disperse and go home
  • Minutemen refused- unknown person fired a shot
  • Gunfire erupted from both sides
  • 8 Minutemen were killed
  • British advanced toward Concord
from protest to rebellion and concord
From Protest to Rebellion…And Concord
  • 400 Minutemen are waiting at Concord
  • British are attacked as they attempt to cross the bridge
  • 3 British are killed then the British retreat back to Boston
from protest to rebellion british retreat from concord
From Protest to RebellionBritish retreat from Concord
  • during British retreat from Concord, 4000 militia men follow and fire at them from behind stone walls and trees
  • 300 of original 700 were killed or wounded on the retreat
  • Colonists feel as if there is no hope for peaceful resolution with Britain
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