Cell growth and survival
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Cell Growth and Survival. Biology 2013 Fall Semester. Review:. Cell theory :. All living things are made of cells . Cells are the basic unit of function and structure in living things. Living cells come only from other living cells. Prokaryotes are …. unicellular b acteria.

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Cell growth and survival

Cell Growth and Survival

Biology 2013

Fall Semester


Cell theory

Review:

Cell theory:

  • All living things are made of cells.

  • Cells are the basic unit of function and structure in living things.

  • Living cells come only from other living cells.


Prokaryotes are

Prokaryotes are …

unicellular

bacteria

Strep bacteria

Small!

Salmonella bacteria


Eukaryotes are

Eukaryotes are…

Plants, animals… humans!


Plant inputs outputs

Plant Inputs:

Plant outputs:

Plant inputs & outputs

Carbon dioxide

oxygen

water

water

glucose

Sunlight

Minerals -------------------- Growth, heat


Animal human inputs outputs

Animal Inputs:

Animal outputs:

Animal & Human inputs & outputs

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

Water

Water

Food

Waste


All cells capture use energy

All cells capture & use energy

Plant cells

Animal cells!

Prokaryotic bacteria


Cell growth and survival

CELLS & ENERGY

  • Need energy to:

    • move

    • change shape

    • repair structure

    • make new cell parts

    • transport food

    • expel wastes


Cell growth and survival

Plants absorb Sunlight during Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis part 1:

Light-Dependent Reaction

  • inputs: water + sunlight

    Location: thylakoids in the chloroplasts

    Light energy used to split water (H20). H’s (hydrogens) stay and O’s (oxygen) is released.

    Output: oxygen


Cell growth and survival

Then the stroma builds glucose during the Calvin Cyle

  • The Calvin Cycle

  • Location:Stroma (space) inside chloroplasts

  • Inputs: carbon dioxide

  • C from CO2 is used to build C6H12O6 =glucose

    Plants=autotrophs


Cell growth and survival

Once you

make glucose(plants)

or

eat glucose (animals & humanss)

then you need to get energy from glucose using…


Cell growth and survival

Cellular Respiration- Organic compounds (GLUCOSE) broken down to create energy/ATP

*Inputs: oxygen + glucose

*Outputs: energy (ATP) + water + carbon dioxide


Cell growth and survival

So, once cells have their inputs & energy,

how long can they live? What is the life cycle of a cell? Can/could a cell live forever?


The cell cycle is the life cycle of a cell

The Cell Cycle is the life cycle of a cell

  • One eukaryotic cell:

  • Grows (copies DNA, organelles)

  • Divides exactly in half,

    Maintains same size,

    same structure

    = 2 identical cells


Interphase g1

Interphase: G1

  • During this phase, the eukaryotic cell

    • Duplicates every organelle

    • Increases in size


Interphase s phase

Interphase: S-phase

  • S= Synthesis = to make

  • Replicates DNA

  • 1 strand DNA 2 identical strands DNA


Interphase g2

Interphase: G2

  • Restriction Checkpoint:

    • IF the cell contents are perfect, then cell proceeds to M-phase (cell division).

    • IF there were mistakes, then apoptosis occurs (induced cell death).


M phase

M-phase

  • M=Mitosis=splitting of cell’s nucleus

  • Nucleus divides in half first

    • WHY should this happen first??

      Ends with cytokinesis (cell splits in half)

Animal cell in anaphase

Plant cell in anaphase


Cells are identical because

Cells are identical because…

They have the exact same DNA as the parent cell


Cyclins proteins make sure cells grow and divide properly

Cyclins (proteins) make sure cells grow and divide properly


When cell division goes wrong

When cell division goes wrong…

If a mistake happens during interphase and a cell is able to get past the restriction checkpoint at the end of interphase, THEN

a cell has the potential

to divide forever

= CANCER

Henritta Lacks


Immortal cells

Immortal Cells

Immortal cell: a cell that doesn’t age; a cell that doesn’t die from old age; a cell that never dies.

There is no restriction checkpoint to stop the cell from dividing. (There are no cyclins to stop or allow division).

Cancer cells are considered to be immortal because they never die of old age.

HeLa cells, cancer cells from Henrietta Lacks, have been dividing continuously since 1951.


What is cancer

What is Cancer?

  • Cancer is a cell that doesn’t stop dividing.

  • One cancer cell tumor (mass of cells)

  • Mestasis (cancer cells break off and spread to other parts of your body).


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