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Imperial Russia 1801 - 1917

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Imperial Russia 1801 - 1917. The Tsars. Alexander I 1801 – 25 Nikolai I 1825 – 55 Alexander II 1855 – 81 Alexander III 1881 – 94 Nikolai II 1894 - 1917. Alexander I: liberal rhetoric. Verified the Code of Nobility Abolished ( but soon reconstructed ) the secret police

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the tsars
The Tsars
  • Alexander I 1801 – 25
  • Nikolai I 1825 – 55
  • Alexander II 1855 – 81
  • Alexander III 1881 – 94
  • Nikolai II 1894 - 1917
alexander i liberal rhetoric
Alexander I: liberal rhetoric
  • Verified the CodeofNobility
  • Abolished (butsoonreconstructed) the secretpolice
  • Introduced the Permanent Council
  • Attemtto make administration moreefficientthrough the Ministries
  • Constitutional experiments in Finland and Poland
  • Reform ofeducation
  • Won international prestige after the defeatof Napoleon
nikolai i orthodoxy autarchy and nationality
Nikolai I: Orthodoxy, Autarchy and nationality
  • Decembrist Revolt 1825
  • Personal chancellery
  • Showed no interest in liberal reforms
  • Independenceof the nobilityremoved
  • The ThirdSection and censorship
  • A Russian Intelligentsia emerges
  • Conflictwith the Ottomans and the otherEuropeanGreat Powers leadsto the CrimeanWar 1853 - 56
alexander ii the reformer
Alexander II: the reformer
  • Defeat in the CrimeanWar a desaster for the tsarist personal regime
  • National debtwashigh and steadilyincreasing
  • Unrest in severalcitiesworried
  • Peasant support wasdeclining
  • A growing intelligentsia woulddemand reforms
alexander s reforms
Alexander´s Reforms
  • The Emancipation Edict 1861; Serfdomended
  • Legal reforms 1864: Independent courtsintroduced; all equalbefore the law
  • The Zemstvo reform 1864
  • Army reform
  • Work on a constitutionstarted
  • Industrial developmentencouraged: focus on railways, oilfields, export ofwheat
  • RiseofRussian terrorism
  • Alexander assassinated by radicals in S:t Petersburg 1881
alexander iii the reactionary
Alexander III: the Reactionary
  • Directresponseto the murderof Alexander II was a decisiveturn back to a more repressive and autocraticrule.
  • The group ”People´s Will” broken up in a largepolice offensive, numbersofprisoners in Siberiaincreased.
  • The powerof the ordinarycourtswasdiminished, administrative officialswere given morepower and militarycourtsintroduced.
  • A system ofinformersdeveloped, the secretpoliceexpanded.
instruments of tsarist control
Instruments oftsaristcontrol
  • Police apparatus
  • Introductionof Land Captains
  • Censorshiptightened
  • Autonomyof the universitiesended, steps taken toexcludepoor boys from gymnasiums
  • Indepenceof the courtsreduced
  • Morepower given to the Orthodox Church, less tolerance for other religions.
targets victims of tsarist repression
Targets/VictimsofTsarist repression
  • National minorities – Russificationused
  • Jews – increaseddiscrimination and pogroms under Alexander III; ca 2 million jewsleftRussia
  • Illegal trade unions in the growingindustrial centers
  • Parts of the Intelligentsia
structural problems
Structural problems
  • Alexander II:s land reforms meantthatheavy taxation on the peasants, forcedthemtosell as much as possibleof the production. Desasterafterharvestfailure 1891.
  • Farmingmethodsremained primitive, peasantscouldhardlyafford new machines or weresuspiciousofthem.
  • The population growthputenormouspressure on the cultivable land.
  • Land area owned by nobilitydecreased, also the nobilitysuffered from highprotection tariffs, slowed the modernisation.
population growth
Population Growth
  • 1860 74 100 000
  • 1870 84 500 000
  • 1890 110 800 000
  • 1900 133 000 000
  • 1910 160 000 000
  • 1914 175 000 000
industrial development
Industrial Development
  • Alexander´s minister ofFinance, Sergei Witte, led Russiainto a rapid industrialisation.
  • Witte activelyspronsoredforeigninvestments and implementedprotection tariffs toencouragedomesticindustry.
  • Directstateinvestmentsencouraged, especiallyregardingrailways
  • TransibirianRailroadconstructed
  • Industrial output expanded at an annual rate of 8% in the 1890s.
slide13

Railway construction

1880 22,865km

1890 30,596km

1904 59,616km

1914 77,246km

nikolai ii the weak tsar
Nikolai II: the weak tsar
  • Conservative, religious
  • Manipulated by the tsarina
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