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Remembering and Forgetting Information. Chapter 3. Remembering. Using a Schema. Importance of Organization. Organized, coherent, structured “map” of our world Something doesn’t match we have to stop and overcome confusion Must be able to block out incorrect information Giving directions

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Remembering and Forgetting Information

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Remembering and forgetting information

Remembering and Forgetting Information

Chapter 3



Using a schema

Using a Schema

Importance of organization

Importance of Organization

  • Organized, coherent, structured “map” of our world

    • Something doesn’t match we have to stop and overcome confusion

  • Must be able to block out incorrect information

    • Giving directions

  • New information must be stored correctly

    • Misplacing items



  • Say with great accuracy when something is familiar

  • Much more stored in memory that we might think

  • Singles items may be indexed under several headings

    • Can recognize a piano regardless of the song

    • Can recognize songs regardless of the instrument

  • More categories assigned, easier retrieval



  • Active reconstruction of information

  • Every word you use

  • Knowledge, attitudes, and expectations

    • Can simplify, distort, or enrich

  • Confabulation

    • False memories

    • Fill in gaps of incomplete memories



  • Clip from Harry Potter



  • Implicit memory

  • Long-term memory has general concepts

    • Specific details are forgotten

  • Need to use knowledge learned years ago

    • Fewer tries/shorter time than someone learning for the first time = benefiting

Photographic memory

Photographic Memory

  • Eidetic Memory

  • Rarely seen in adults

  • Children can recall very specific details from a picture, page, or scene briefly viewed

  • Does not truly exist as we imagine

    • Merely an increased capacity of iconic memory

Eyewitness reports

Eyewitness Reports





  • Does not mean memory is lost

    • Inability to bring it back

  • Forgetting occurs rapidly

    • Overlearning: rehearse it continually

  • Not enough practice

  • Memory decay

Interference theory

Interference Theory

  • Conflict between new and old material

  • Adjusting schemas causes problems

  • New material similar to old hard to remember

  • Proactive: earlier memory does the blocking

  • Retroactive: later memory does the blocking

    • EX: New phone number



  • Old data not always lost, but blocked

  • Blocked not always accident(Freud)

    • Embarrassing of frightening experiences

  • Useful applications

    • Parking your car



  • Blocking of old memories, loss of newer ones

  • Explanations

    • Temporary reduction of blood supply from an injury

    • Blow to the head causes major electrical changes, wiping out new memories

  • Another blow to the head will not undo amnesia

Amnesia cont

Amnesia Cont.

  • Retrograde Amnesia

    • Loss of past memories

    • Memories closer to accident more likely to be forgotten

  • Anterograde Amnesia

    • Inability to create new memories

    • Long-term memories remain intact

    • “Short term memory loss”

Amnesia examples

Amnesia Examples



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