Remembering forgetting
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Remembering & Forgetting. Unit 8 Lesson 2. Objectives. Review elements of memory & information processing. Explain retrieval techniques. Describe theories on forgetting. Warm Up. What are the 3 stages of info processing theory? Input – Central Processing – Output. Warm Up.

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Remembering forgetting

Remembering & Forgetting

Unit 8

Lesson 2


Objectives

Objectives

  • Review elements of memory & information processing.

  • Explain retrieval techniques.

  • Describe theories on forgetting.


Warm up

Warm Up

  • What are the 3 stages of info processing theory?

  • Input – Central Processing – Output


Warm up1

Warm Up

  • What happens in the central processing stage?

  • Encode-Store-Retrieve Info


Review

Review

  • 3 Memory Systems?

    • Sensory

    • Short-Term

      • Working

    • Long-Term

  • Types of LTM?

    • Episodic- Events

    • Semantic- Knowledge

    • Procedural- Skill


Review fill in blank

Review Fill-In-Blank

  • Info enters the ___ where we have to pay ___ to it or it is lost. If we do, it moves into ___ where there is limited capacity and duration. To increase capacity we can ___ info. To increase duration we can ___ info. We must then move this info into ___ by connecting it to stuff we already know, called ___. We organize LTM into mental maps, called _____.


Review fill in blank1

Review Fill-In-Blank

  • Info enters the sensory memory where we have to pay attention to it or it is lost. If we do, it moves into STM/working memory where there is limited capacity and duration. To increase capacity we can chunk info. To increase duration we can rehearse info. We must then move this info into LTM by connecting it to stuff we already know, encoding.


Retrieval

Retrieval

  • Obtaining info stored in LTM for use

    • Recognition – Id as familiar or unfamiliar

    • Recall – Active reconstruction of previous learned into

      • Confabulation- “remember” info never stored

    • Relearning – Learned before, haven’t rehearsed lately, can relearn quickly.


Recognition test

Recognition Test


Recognition test1

Recognition Test

  • Which of the following words was not on the list?

  • A. Lion

  • B. Chicken

  • C. Elephant

  • D. Tiger

  • E. Dog


Recall test

Recall Test


Recall test1

Recall Test


Memory reconstruction

Memory Reconstruction

  • Must be careful when recalling info b/c of confabulation … how many wrote ANGRY? Expectation that it would be part of list…

    • Eyewitness Testimony

    • Recovered Memories


Activity

Activity

  • 3 or 4 volunteers

  • Class, listen for how much of story they actually repeat correctly, or even mention!


Activity1

Activity

A farmer in western Kansas put a tin roof on his barn. Then a small tornado blew the roof off, and when the farmer found it 2 counties away it was twisted and mangled beyond repair.

A friend and lawyer advised him that the Ford Motor Co would pay him a good price for the scrap tin, and the farmer decided he would ship the roof up to the company to see how much he could get for it.


Remembering forgetting

He crated it up in a very big wooden box and sent it off to Dearborn, Michigan, marking it plainly with his return address so that the Ford Motor Company would know where to send the check.

12 weeks passed, and the farmer didn’t hear from Ford. Finally, he was just on the verge of writing them to find out what was the matter, when he received an envelope from them. It said, “We don’t know what hit your car mister, but we’ll have it fixed for you by the 15th of next month.”


Listen for

Farmer

Kansas

Tin roof on barn

Small tornado

2 counties away

Twisted

Friend and lawyer

Ford Motor Co.

Good price

Ship the roof

Wooden box

Dearborn, Michigan

Return Address

12 weeks

Verge of writing

Received envelope

Hit your car

5th next month

Listen For…


Recall

Recall

  • What did people remember most?

    • Items at beginning and end of story… called serial position effect


Serial position effect

Serial Position Effect

  • Remembering first and last items in list is easier than items in middle.

    • Primacy: Encode first by rehearsal

    • Recency: Last are still in STM


Primacy recency test

Pet

Bread

Jail

Shirt

Ottoman

Taxi

Football

Comb

Doll

Bed

Car

Bridge

Purse

Desk

Flower

Book

Primacy-Recency Test


Primacy recency test1

Pet

Bread

Jail

Shirt

Ottoman

Taxi

Football

Comb

Doll

Bed

Car

Bridge

Purse

Desk

Flower

Book

Primacy-Recency Test


Review fill in blank2

Review Fill-In-Blank

  • If we need to ___ info from LTM we can do one of three things. ___ is looking at info and deciding it its familiar or unfamiliar to us. Reconstructing the info from the top of our head is ___. We must be careful not to falsely fill in the blanks which is ______. And finally, once we’ve learned something, we can go back after a period of time and ___ that info much more quickly.


Review fill in blank3

Review Fill-In-Blank

  • If we need to retrieve that info, or get it out, we can do one of three things. Recognition is looking at info and deciding it its familiar or unfamiliar to us. Reconstructing the info from the top of our head is recall. We must be careful not to falsely fill in the blanks which is confabulation. And finally, once we’ve learned something, we can go back after a period of time and relearn that info much more quickly.


Random retrieval phenomena

Random Retrieval Phenomena

  • Déjà vu

    • “Seen before”

    • Current event provokes similar retrieval cues, but you haven’t done it.

  • Jamais Vu

    • “Never before”

    • Event doesn’t match earlier encoded clues, but know you’ve done it


Random retrieval phenomena1

Random Retrieval Phenomena

  • Tip of the Tongue

    • Try to retrieve familiar piece of info but can’t quite do it

    • Blocking Theory

    • Partial Activation


Random retrieval phenomenon

Random Retrieval Phenomenon

  • “I Froze”

    • Stress hormones inhibit hippocampus

    • Cognitive function and LTM retrieval fail


Random retrieval phenomena2

Random Retrieval Phenomena

  • Priming-

    • Preparing networks to remember...

    • Hteplpaesiedr

    • Grandma is buying an apple.

    • Hteplpaesiedr.

    • The apple is red


Forgetting

Forgetting

  • What is it?

    • Loss of info over time

    • Hermann Ebbinghaus


Why do we forget things

Why do we forget things?

  • Simple Reasons:

    • Not encoded/stored in first place

    • Retrieval failure

    • Decay/fade over time

    • Don’t want to remember (repression)

    • Something gets in the way (interference theory)

    • Injury/Trauma (Amnesia)


Why do we forget over time

Why do we forget over time?

  • Interference Theory

    • People forget info because other learned info interferes.

    • Proactive: Old info interferes with new learning

    • Retroactive: New info makes people forget old info


Memory impairment amnesias

Memory Impairment: Amnesias

  • Organic Amnesia

    • Physical trauma to brain structure.

    • Anterograde: Can’t recall event after injury

    • Retrograde: Can’t recall events that occurred before


Memory impairment amnesias1

Memory Impairment: Amnesias

  • Functional Amnesia

    • Due to psychological trauma

    • Psychogenic amnesia

    • Dissociative Fugue: Forget “selves” for a time…identity, life, etc


Memory impairment amnesias2

Memory Impairment: Amnesias

  • Infantile Amnesia

    • Remember very little about 1st years of life

    • Why?

      • Structure

      • Language

    • Memories:

      • 3/4th birthday

      • Narrative 7yrs


Closure

Closure

Identify two reasons why we forget information:

Never stored, Poor retrieval, Decay, Interference, Repression, Amnesia


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