Different types of environment. There are three major types of environment. What are they?. land. freshwater. marine. How do organisms survive in such different environments?. What is adaptation?.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
There are three major types of environment. What are they?
How do organisms survive in such different environments?
All organisms have features such as legs for walking, wings for flying or leaves for photosynthesizing that allow them to function in their environment. These are general adaptations.
Organisms also have specific adaptations such as fangs, camouflage, sensitive smell, shallow roots or hibernation. These arespecial features or behaviours that have evolved to make an organism particularly suited to its environmental niche.
What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment?
streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water
gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be
extracted from the surrounding water
fins provide stability, power and control
What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator?
specialized sense organs can detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms
highly sensitive sense of smell that can detect drops of blood from miles away
lots of very sharp teeth that are constantly replaced
silver colouring underneath acts as camouflage
Why is it important that organisms are adapted to their environment?
The better adapted an organism is to its habitat, the more successful it will be when competing for resources such as food and mates. Its chance of reproducing and passing on its genes will improve.
A predator is an animal that hunts and kills other animalsfor food.
Predators can be either:
A prey animalis one that is attacked and eaten by a predator.
Predators are adapted to hunt, catch and eat prey.
Prey are adapted to avoid capture from predators.
What are common predator adaptations for hunting and killing?
What are common prey adaptations for avoiding capture by predators?
The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America. How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes?
large ears help in detecting predators
greyish-brown fur turns white in winter for camouflage
monocular vision with a wide field of view to see predators approaching
large furry feet act as snow shoes and protect the soles from cold
How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares?
excellent binocular vision for judging distances
warm thick furry coat protects from the cold
sharp teeth and claws for puncturing flesh
verystrong hind leg muscles capable of pouncing 6.5 metres!
extra large paws act as snow shoes
Poison has evolved as an adaptation of predators and prey.
Organisms such as snakes, spiders and insects use poison to paralyze or kill prey.
Other organisms use poison as a defence. Certain tropical frogs have poisonous skin that can make predators very ill or even die.
They are often brightly coloured to deter predators from even trying to attack them.
Some harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous species. This is called mimicry.
For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees.
This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverflyis incapable of stinging.
Match the adaptations to the correct heading
Adaptations: high speed; binocular vision;
mimicry; poison; sharp teeth/claws; wide
field of vision; camouflage
How is a polar bear adapted to its extremely cold climate?
white greasy fur repels water and acts as camouflage
thick fur and body fat insulate from the cold
large, wide feet spread the body’s weight and act as good paddles and snow shoes
Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope
with conditions in the harsh polar environment include:
small ears and smallbody surface area to volume ratio reduces heat loss
eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from the Sun’s reflection
black skinis a good absorber of heat
fat is stored in the humptoreduce overheating
little water is lost through sweatingorurination
long, thin legs help to increase body surface area and increase heat loss
wide feet spread out body weight on shifting sand
How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?
What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with the harsh desert environment?
long eyelashes and furry ears prevent sand and dust from getting in
nostrils can be closed for protection during sandstorms
very varied diet, ranging from grassand bark tothorns and bones.
How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?
water stored in a fleshy stem, and a thick, waxy surface reduces water loss
leaves are narrow spines to reduce water loss and protect from predators
roots are either very deep, or shallow and widespread to catch surface water
Flowers enable plants to reproduce sexually. For this to happen, pollen from one flower must be carried to another flower – either on the same plant or on a different plant. This is called pollination.
In what ways can pollination take place?
How are flowers adapted for pollination by insects such as bees and butterflies?
colourful, scented petals attract insects
nectar, a source of food for insects, is deep within the flower
large, sticky pollen grains become attached to the insect’s body
stiff anthers and stigmas are positioned where insects must brush past them
How are flowers adapted for pollination by the wind?
huge numbers of light, tiny pollen grains
small, dull-coloured petals
anthers hang loosely outside flower so wind can blow pollen
long, feathery stigma hanging outside flower so pollen can be trapped
Plants can livein acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need.
Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in.
Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape!
The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs!