Different types of environment
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Different types of environment. There are three major types of environment. What are they?. land. freshwater. marine. How do organisms survive in such different environments?. What is adaptation?.

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Different types of environment

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Different types of environment

Different types of environment

There are three major types of environment. What are they?

land

freshwater

marine

How do organisms survive in such different environments?


What is adaptation

What is adaptation?

All organisms have features such as legs for walking, wings for flying or leaves for photosynthesizing that allow them to function in their environment. These are general adaptations.

Organisms also have specific adaptations such as fangs, camouflage, sensitive smell, shallow roots or hibernation. These arespecial features or behaviours that have evolved to make an organism particularly suited to its environmental niche.


A shark s general adaptations

A shark’s general adaptations

What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment?

streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water

gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be

extracted from the surrounding water

fins provide stability, power and control


A shark s specific adaptations

A shark’s specific adaptations

What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator?

specialized sense organs can detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms

highly sensitive sense of smell that can detect drops of blood from miles away

lots of very sharp teeth that are constantly replaced

silver colouring underneath acts as camouflage


The importance of adaptation

The importance of adaptation

Why is it important that organisms are adapted to their environment?

The better adapted an organism is to its habitat, the more successful it will be when competing for resources such as food and mates. Its chance of reproducing and passing on its genes will improve.


True or false

True or false?


Animals that eat other animals

Animals that eat other animals

A predator is an animal that hunts and kills other animalsfor food.

Predators can be either:

  • carnivorous (eat meat only) e.g. wolves

  • omnivorous (eat meat and vegetation) e.g. humans.

A prey animalis one that is attacked and eaten by a predator.


How are predators and prey adapted

How are predators and prey adapted?

Predators are adapted to hunt, catch and eat prey.

Prey are adapted to avoid capture from predators.


Adaptations of predators

Adaptations of predators

What are common predator adaptations for hunting and killing?

  • Excellent vision – For spotting prey from far away. Many predators have binocular vision to accurately judge the distance of their prey.

  • High speed – For chasing after prey. Predators often stalk their prey using stealth and sometimes camouflage to get as close as possible without being detected.

  • Weapons – For killing prey. These are predominantly sharp teeth, claws and beaks, which enable the predator to hold their prey and tear their flesh.


Adaptations of prey

Adaptations of prey

What are common prey adaptations for avoiding capture by predators?

  • Excellent vision – For spotting predators from far away. Many prey have a wide field of view to see predators approaching from all different directions.

  • High speed – For escaping from predators. Prey animals such as deer and antelopes often have a high stamina to keep running for longer than their predators.

  • Camouflage – For hiding from predators. For example, the stripes on a zebra break up their outline, stick insects look like twigs, some insects look like leaves.

  • Defence – For protection against attack. Examples include armour plating, horns and tusks.


Adaptations of the snowshoe hare

Adaptations of the snowshoe hare

The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America. How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes?

large ears help in detecting predators

greyish-brown fur turns white in winter for camouflage

monocular vision with a wide field of view to see predators approaching

large furry feet act as snow shoes and protect the soles from cold


Adaptations of the lynx

Adaptations of the lynx

How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares?

excellent binocular vision for judging distances

warm thick furry coat protects from the cold

sharp teeth and claws for puncturing flesh

verystrong hind leg muscles capable of pouncing 6.5 metres!

extra large paws act as snow shoes


Using poison

Using poison

Poison has evolved as an adaptation of predators and prey.

Organisms such as snakes, spiders and insects use poison to paralyze or kill prey.

Other organisms use poison as a defence. Certain tropical frogs have poisonous skin that can make predators very ill or even die.

They are often brightly coloured to deter predators from even trying to attack them.


Let s pretend

Let’s pretend

Some harmless organisms have become adapted to look like dangerous species. This is called mimicry.

For example, stingless hoverflies have black and yellow bands on their bodies that resemble those on wasps or bees.

This warns predators to stay away, even though the hoverflyis incapable of stinging.


Whose adaptation

Whose adaptation?

Match the adaptations to the correct heading

Predator

Both

Prey

Adaptations: high speed; binocular vision;

mimicry; poison; sharp teeth/claws; wide

field of vision; camouflage


How is a polar bear adapted

How is a polar bear adapted?

How is a polar bear adapted to its extremely cold climate?

white greasy fur repels water and acts as camouflage

thick fur and body fat insulate from the cold

large, wide feet spread the body’s weight and act as good paddles and snow shoes


More polar bears adaptations

More polar bears adaptations

Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope

with conditions in the harsh polar environment include:

small ears and smallbody surface area to volume ratio reduces heat loss

eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from the Sun’s reflection

black skinis a good absorber of heat


How is a camel adapted

How is a camel adapted?

fat is stored in the humptoreduce overheating

little water is lost through sweatingorurination

long, thin legs help to increase body surface area and increase heat loss

wide feet spread out body weight on shifting sand

How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?


More camel adaptations

More camel adaptations

What other adaptations have camels evolved to cope with the harsh desert environment?

long eyelashes and furry ears prevent sand and dust from getting in

nostrils can be closed for protection during sandstorms

very varied diet, ranging from grassand bark tothorns and bones.


How is a cactus adapted

How is a cactus adapted?

How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate?

water stored in a fleshy stem, and a thick, waxy surface reduces water loss

leaves are narrow spines to reduce water loss and protect from predators

roots are either very deep, or shallow and widespread to catch surface water


What do flowers do

What do flowers do?

Flowers enable plants to reproduce sexually. For this to happen, pollen from one flower must be carried to another flower – either on the same plant or on a different plant. This is called pollination.

In what ways can pollination take place?

  • Pollen is carried by insects from one flower to another.

  • Pollen is blown by wind from one flower to another.


Adaptations for insect pollination

Adaptations for insect pollination

How are flowers adapted for pollination by insects such as bees and butterflies?

colourful, scented petals attract insects

nectar, a source of food for insects, is deep within the flower

large, sticky pollen grains become attached to the insect’s body

stiff anthers and stigmas are positioned where insects must brush past them


Adaptations for wind pollination

Adaptations for wind pollination

How are flowers adapted for pollination by the wind?

huge numbers of light, tiny pollen grains

small, dull-coloured petals

anthers hang loosely outside flower so wind can blow pollen

long, feathery stigma hanging outside flower so pollen can be trapped


Unusual plant adaptations

Unusual plant adaptations

Plants can livein acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need.

Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in.

Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape!

The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs!


Glossary 1 2

Glossary (1/2)

  • adaptation –A special feature or behaviour that makes an organism particularly suited to its habitat.

  • camouflage – An adaptation that helps an organism to remain undetected by a predator or prey.

  • general – A type of adaptation that makes an organism suited to life overall.

  • mimicry – The resemblance of one species to a more dangerous species, for protection against predation.


Glossary 2 2

Glossary (2/2)

  • pollination – The transfer of pollen from one flower to another, and which is assisted by insects or wind.

  • predator –An organism that hunts and kills other organismsfor food.

  • prey –An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism.

  • specific – A type of adaptation that makes an organism particularly suited to its environmental niche.


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