Biotechnology technique 3 genetic engineering
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Biotechnology Technique #3: Genetic Engineering. Use the slides that follow to fill in the notes on page 6 of your note packet.

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Biotechnology Technique #3: Genetic Engineering

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Biotechnology technique 3 genetic engineering

Biotechnology Technique #3: Genetic Engineering

  • Use the slides that follow to fill in the notes on page 6 of your note packet.

This is Buckey and Tucker alongside their mom. Buckey and Tucker have been genetically engineered so that their female offspring will produce a specific protein in their milk.


There are several ways that organisms can develop new traits

There are several ways that organisms can develop new traits:

  • natural selection

  • mutation

  • selective breeding

  • genetic engineering

  • We’re going to look at the last two in this chapter.


Selective breeding

Selective Breeding

  • Selective breeding = artificial selection (instead of natural selection)

  • Process of breeding plants or animals for specific traits

  • animals = breeds

  • plants = varieties or cultivars


With selective breeding

With selective breeding…

  • Humans take control; we choose the traits that we want the offspring to have:

    • Identify the feature that we want

    • only allow individuals with that feature to breed with one another

  • We’ve been doing this for 1000s of years!

    • crops

    • domesticated animals


Examples

Examples

  • Farmers select for cows that produce more milk or for corn plants that produce corn with larger ears

  • Dog breeders


Genetic engineering

Genetic Engineering

  • Genetic engineering = altering the DNA of living organisms

  • Requires recombinant DNA

    • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is DNA from two or more sources incorporated into a single recombinant molecule

    • Organisms with rDNA are genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

  • Has both medical and agricultural applications!


  • Biotechnology technique 3 genetic engineering

    • Use the slides that follow to fill in the information on page 7 of your note packet.

    This is Dolly, the first successfully cloned organism, and her lamb, Bonny.


    Medical application 1

    Medical Application 1

    • Gene therapy

      • Isolate healthy functional gene

      • Insert healthy gene into a vector like bacteria or a virus

      • Infect a patient with the vector to introduce the healthy gene

      • The healthy gene should produce a normal protein that replaces the function of the patient’s abnormal protein


    Biotechnology technique 3 genetic engineering

    • Works well for disorders resulting from loss of single proteins

      • Gene therapy is a possible treatment for people suffering from cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, possibly AIDS and some cancers

  • Cons:

    • treatment must be repeated

    • immune reactions


  • Medical application 2

    Medical Application 2

    • Cloning – whole organisms = cloning by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)

    • 1st done in 1996 – Dolly

      • Died of premature aging and disease

      • 6 yrs old – about ½ the normal life span

  • Goal is to alter genome in a useful way

    • Exp. altered/cloned goats secrete human clotting factors

    • Altered pigs may produce organs for transplant that don’t trigger rejection


  • Medical application 3

    Medical Application 3

    • Vaccines

      • Some vaccines contain genetically altered pathogens so they do not cause disease but the body sill builds up antibodies/immune response against the pathogen in the future

    • Exp. DNA vaccines have pathogen DNA but no disease-causing capabilities

    • Possibilities: AIDS, malaria, cancers


    Medical application 4

    Medical Application 4

    • Genetically engineered bacteria can become like little “protein factories” that produce human proteins

    • Scientists can isolate and purify these proteins for human use

      • Exp. insulin for diabetics

    • There are over 30 products made this way for medical use!


    A few recombinant dna products

    A Few Recombinant DNA products:

    • Insulin – for diabetics

    • Factor VIII and factor IX – clotting factors for hemophiliacs

    • Human growth hormone – for growth defects

    • Erythropoietin – for anemia

    • Interferons – for viral infections and cancer

    • Interleukins

    • Tissue plasminogen activator – dissolves blood clots

    • Angiostatin and endostatin – cancer drugs

    • Hepatitis B surface antigen – for hepatitis B vaccine


    Agricultural applications

    Agricultural applications

    • Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) include crops and livestock.


    Agricultural applications1

    Agricultural applications

    • Genetically modified crops have been genetically altered to:

      • be more tolerant of environmental conditions

      • be resistant to insects/pests and herbicides (weed killers)

        • Have genes that code for proteins that are harmful to insects/pests

      • be resistant to plant diseases

      • increase the amount of food a crop will yield

      • improve nutritional value


    Biotechnology technique 3 genetic engineering

    GMOs

    • 93% of soy

    • 94% of cotton

    • 88% of corn

    • GMOs in > 80% of packaged products!

    • Although polls consistently show that American consumers would like to have foods labeled as containing GMOs, there are no mandatory labeling laws.


    Biotechnology technique 3 genetic engineering

    • Livestock have been genetically altered to

      • Increase milk production

      • Increase growth rate

      • Be more resistant to infections

      • Produce leaner meat

    • No GM animals have been approved for food by the FDA yet…


    Biotechnology technique 3 genetic engineering

    • Remember Buckey and Tucker? They’ve been engineered so that their female offspring will produce spider silk protein in their milk.

    • Huh?! Why? That sounds weird.

    • These proteins can be used to spin silk fibers needed to make artificial limbs and bulletproof vests!


    Why the controversy over genetic technology

    Why the controversy over genetic technology?

    • GM crops can get into the wild and become a “SUPERWEED”!

    • Gene therapy shouldn’t involve reproductive cells that could affect future generations.

    • Human embryos should not be cloned.

    • Confidentiality is key. Knowing an individual’s genetic make up may lead to discrimination in the workplace.

    • As much as 70-75% of food in supermarket may be genetically modified. The US does not require GM foods to be labeled.


    The end

    The End!!

    Thank you for completing your notes!!


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