World war i turning points
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World War I: Turning Points. Weaponry. Machine gun Airplane Tank. Poison gas Zeppelin Big Bertha. Battle of the Marne (Sept 5-12, 1914). Month-long German offensive toward Paris halted after six French field armies and one British army counterattacked against the Germans

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World War I: Turning Points

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World War I: Turning Points


Weaponry

  • Machine gun

  • Airplane

  • Tank

  • Poison gas

  • Zeppelin

  • Big Bertha


Battle of the Marne(Sept 5-12, 1914)

  • Month-long German offensive toward Paris halted after six French field armies and one British army counterattacked against the Germans

  • Marked failure of Schlieffen Plan


Battle of Ypres(Oct 19-Nov 22, 1914)

  • Ypres = strategic city in Belgium

  • British wanted to secure English Channel ports for supply line by sea

  • Germans needed Ypres to get to Calais

  • French did not want Germans to outflank Allied front from the north

  • Ended the “Race to the Sea”; Germans prevented from reaching Calais and Dunkirk


Battle of Verdun(Feb 21-Dec 18, 1916)

  • By 1915, many forts were left mostly undefended due to threat of German howitzers; Germans took Fort Douaumont February 25, 1916

  • Fort Douaumont = largest/highest of the 19 large defensive forts protecting Verdun; recaptured by French in October 1916

  • After nearly 10 months: negligible gains in territory, massive casualties (542,000 French & 434,000 Germans), yet an Allied victory


Fort Douaumont, start of 1916


Fort Douaumont, end of 1916


Battle of the Somme(July 1-Nov 18, 1916)

  • British took lead since French were still defending Verdun

  • More than one million casualties; one of the bloodiest wars ever recorded


U.S. Enters the War

  • 1914: US factories producing at high rate in response to demand from war; U.S. maintained neutrality

  • 1916: National Defense Act passed, authorizing expansion of US Army to 175,000-286,000 in the event of war

  • 1917: Apr 2, President Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war; granted Apr 6


Treaty of Versailles

  • Armistice Day: November 11, 1918: ceasefire

  • June 28, 1919: Ended state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers

  • Germany required to:

    • Accept responsibility for causing the war (Austria & Hungary in Treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Trianon)

    • Disarm

    • Make substantial territorial concessions, and pay heavy reparations to Entente Power countries

      • $31.4 billion in 1921

      • $442 billion today


Credits

  • http://flightlinefabrications.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/wwi.bmp

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:French_soldiers_ditch_1914.jpg

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Battle_of_the_Marne_-_Map.jpg

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbggEGUaE28

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-LxzD6Luj4

  • http://old.library.jhu.edu/sebin/x/o/box76item105.jpg

  • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-bVGcZWB00CI/T5tbAz4puLI/AAAAAAAAALk/griIO2CQV0o/s1600/Gamma-gerat.jpg

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UamKIlTsKgA

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Race_to_the_Sea_1914.png

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/Verdun_and_Vincinity_-_Map.jpg

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f5/Fort_Douaumont_Ende_1916.jpg

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0e/Fort_Douaumont_Anfang_1916.jpg

  • http://www.therooms.ca/regiment/images/somme-static-map-FA.jpg

  • http://www.ushmm.org/lcmedia/map/lc/image/ger71020.gif


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