Newton’s Second Law. How the apple fell from the tree…. The second Law. F= m x a. History. Isaac Newton was one of the world’s great scientists. He combined his ideas and the ideas of earlier scientists, such as Galileo, into a unified picture of how the universe works.
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How the apple fell from the tree…
F= m x a
A force is a push or a pull on any object with a mass.
The second law States that the sum of all the forces pushing or pulling the object is directly proportional to how fast the object is speeding up.
I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.
II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.
III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
This is the most powerful of Newton's three Laws, because it allows us to calculate how objects move: It allows us to relate what moves to why it moves.
It also answers how and why speeds change when forces are applied
(10 kg) x (10 m/s2) = 100 Newtons
24 N = (6kg) x acceleration
24 / 6 = acceleration = 4 m/s2
Atwood’s machine is a simple machine allows us to calculate gravity and mass.
Greater weights will cause the machine to accelerate in the direction of that weight.
What forces are acting on each individual mass?
Gravity is the only force “pulling” on the lager mass.
For the smaller mass, gravity pulls down and the rope pulls up.
Weight of smaller mass
Weight of larger mass
The system accelerates in the direction with the heaviest weight. Is this in concord with the laws of gravity and balance?
Friction is defined as the resistant force between two objects’ nonsmooth surfaces
It always acts against an object.
In this scenereo, gravity is not the only force acting on the block-weight system. Friction is also exerting a force opposite that of gravity.
Weight exerted by gravity
Force = mass x acceleration
Force = (2kg) x (2m/s2)
Force = 4N
(mass) x (gravity)
This is equal to:
(2kg) x (9.81 m/s2)
We can conclude that the apple’s weight is greater than the force acting on the apple in the air
First we must find the direction of each force.
One dog pulls to the left, the other dog pulls to the right.
Force = 12N - 6N = mass x acceleration
12N - 6N = (80kg) x a
6N = (80kg) x a