physical and cognitive development in early adulthood

physical and cognitive development in early adulthood PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Physical Development and the Senses. Physical development and maturation completePeak of physical capabilitiesBrain wave patterns show more mature patternsSenses are peak Most professional athletes at peak during early adulthood. 443. Physical Fitness. Superior physical capabilities require exercise and dietNo more than _____ of Americans exercise enough to keep themselves in good physical shapeLess than 20% participate in moderate exercise on regular basis. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1. Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Chapter 13 Robert S. Feldman

3. Physical Fitness Superior physical capabilities require exercise and diet No more than _____ of Americans exercise enough to keep themselves in good physical shape Less than 20% participate in moderate exercise on regular basis

4. Benefits of Exercise Cardiovascular fitness increase Lung capacity increases, raising endurance Stronger muscles and greater flexibility Greater range of movement More elasticity in muscles, tendons, and ligaments Reduction in osteoporosis Optimization of immune response Decreased stress level Increased sense of control over their bodies and feeling of accomplishment Cardiovascular fitness increase Lung capacity increases, raising endurance Stronger muscles and greater flexibility Greater range of movement More elasticity in muscles, tendons, and ligaments Reduction in osteoporosis Optimization of immune response Decreased stress level Increased sense of control over their bodies and feeling of accomplishment

5. Health Leading causes of death among young adults (ages 25-34) are: ________________ AIDS Cancer Heart disease Suicide Murder Gender and SES differences

6. Secondary Aging Lifestyle decisions, including the use—or abuse—of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs or engaging in unprotected sex, can hasten ________________ – physical declines due to behavior and/or environmental factors This can also increase a young adult’s risk of dying

7. Eating, Nutrition, and Obesity Most young adults know which foods are healthy, but ignore good nutrition Physical growth begins to decline Calorie reduction necessary

8. Physical Disabilities in Young Adulthood: Coping With Physical Challenge Some 50+ million Americans are physically challenged Fewer than 10% of people with major handicaps have finished high school Fewer than 25% of disabled men and 15% of disabled women work full time Adults with handicaps are often unemployed, or stuck in routine, low-paying jobs

9. Barriers: Discrimination and Prejudice Despite Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), many older buildings are inaccessible to wheelchairs Prejudice and discrimination affect way disabled people think of themselves Pity, avoidance Treating adults as children Seeing disabled person as a category rather than individual

10. Stress and Coping in Early Adulthood _____________: Response to events that threaten or challenge an individual Pleasant events and unpleasant events Long-term, continuous exposure may result in a reduction of body's ability to deal with stress

11. Lazarus and Folkman People move through series of stages that determine whether or not they will experience stress ___________ APPRAISAL ___________ APPRAISAL

12. Predicting Stressful Event (Shelly Taylor, 1991) Negative emotions are more likely to produce stress Uncontrollable or unpredictable situations are more likely to produce stress Ambiguous and confusing situations produce more stress Simultaneous tasks demands are more likely to experience stress

13. Consequences of Stress PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS COPING

14. Styles of Coping Problem-focused coping Emotion-focused coping Social support coping Defense coping involves

15. Hardiness, Resilience, and Coping Hardiness is a personality characteristic associated with lower rate of stress-related illness Resilience is ability to withstand, overcome, and actually thrive following profound adversity

16. Intellectual Growth in Early Adulthood Physical development slows down during early adulthood, but does cognitive? ~ What did Piaget propose?

17. Postformal Thought Giesela Labouvie-Vief Adult predicaments are sometimes solved by ____________ thinking rather than pure logic Postformal thought acknowledges that world sometimes lacks purely right and wrong solutions so adults must draw upon prior experiences to solve problems

18. K. Warner Schaie ACQUISITIVE STAGE ACHIEVING STAGE RESPONSIBLE STAGE EXECUTIVE STAGE REINTEGRATIVE STAGE

19. How Information Is Used: Schaie’s Stages

20. Intelligence: What Matters in Early Adulthood? Sternberg- TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE Intelligence is made up of three major components: Componential aspects Experiential components Contextual factors

21. A Closer Look: Sternberg

22. Expanding on Sternberg’s Theory… Psychologist Seymour Epstein Constructive thinking Form of practical intelligence Underlies success in such areas as social relationships and physical and emotional health

23. Creativity: Novel Thought in Early Adulthood CREATIVITY Early adulthood Peak of creativity Many of professional problems are novel Willing to take risks

24. Life Events and Cognitive Development Major life events may lead to cognitive growth Think about the world in novel, more complex, sophisticated, and often less rigid ways Apply postformal thought (Labouvie-Vief)

25. College: Pursuing Higher Education Nationwide, a minority of high school graduates enter college Only about __ % of those who start graduate from college in 4 years Influenced by race and gender variables

26. Who goes to college? 40% of college students today are 25 years of age or older Average age of a community college student is 31 College degree is becoming increasingly important in obtaining and keeping job Absolute number of minority students enrolled in college has increased BUT overall proportion of minority population has decreased over past decade

27. Why is there a gender gap in college attendance? Will it continue? ______ have more opportunities to earn money when they graduate More ______ enrolled in college

28. The Changing College Student: Never Too Late to Go to College? According to Sherry Willis, adults return to college for several reasons: To understand their own aging To keep up with rapid technological and cultural advances To combat obsolescence on the job To acquire new vocational skills To broaden their intellectual skills

29. College Adjustment: Reacting to the Demands of College Life First year _______________________ Particularly affects unusually successful students in high school Passes for most as friends made and integration into college life occurs Serious psychological consequences for few

30. Gender and College Performance Prejudice and discrimination Hostile sexism Benevolent sexist Differences exist in gender distribution in classes and attrition rates

31. Stereotypes about college African Americans don’t do well in academic pursuits. Women lack ability in math and science.

32. Women and African Americans perform less well in college Academic disidentification Stereotype threat

33. Dropping Out of College Half of all students drop out of college Marriage, children, or death of family member Academic difficulties Financial difficulties Time off to mature

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