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1. Authentic Materials in the Classroom: Their use to advance communicative competence Bryan Meadows
Ph.D. Student, University of Arizona
22nd Annual Second Language Teachers Symposium
September 17, 2005
2. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona
3. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Why use authentic texts in the K-12 classroom? Authentic texts-by definition-are culturally relevant and informative.
Authentic texts are embedded in target cultureproducers and intended consumers share relatively close worldview
Foreign language texts, by contrast, are unfaithful and deficient in potential information (Fonseca-Greber & Waugh, 2003; Vellenga, 2004).
4. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Why use authentic texts in the K-12 classroom? <part two> Satisfy natural curiosity of your students. They did not take your class to complete worksheets and take exams. Appreciate cool stuff.
Real-world use is the eventual goal of any language program. Authentic texts offer the first baby steps for the students along this journey.
Foster problem-solving inquiry (fill in the blanks).
5. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Few words of warning Must know your students and their potential level of understanding. Unmodified texts or texts without sufficient scaffolding can be extremely frustrating to students who are not ready for the text (Yano, Long & Ross, 1994)
Choose your battlescant expect students to pick up every single bit of information from the text. Be selective and keep instruction focused.
6. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona What is communicative competence? Its one thing to know how to say somethingslightly more important to know when to say what.
Consider proverbial man
Japanese example of responding to compliments
Dell Hymes introduced the notion in 1966.
Linguistic knowledge is not the whole picture.
(Dell Hymes, 1966 in Saville-Troike, 1996)
7. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Communicative Competence, Examples? Saville-Troike provides specific examples:
knowledge or expectation of who may or may not speak in certain settings,
how one may talk to persons of different statuses and roles,
what nonverbal behaviors are appropriate in various contexts,
how to ask for and give information,
how to request,
how to offer or decline assistance or cooperation,
how to give commands,
etc. (Saville-Troike, 1996: p. 363)
8. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Communicative Competence:Four Areas of Focus Grammatical Competence
from Alptekin (2002)
9. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Communicative Competence and FL Teacher Role of FL teacher is to help students to mesh themselves with the mainstream, target community and their linguistic behavior.
Authentic texts start to bridge that gap for the studentsexpose them to a new way of seeing the world
10. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Practical Ideas for incorporating authentic texts Chibimaruko-chan
Neruton / Drama Movie
Train timetables (train culture)
New Years Cards
11. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Practical Ideas for incorporating authentic texts <part two> School-Related Language
Sugata student diary
Entering the job marketm
12. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Additional Resources for Authenticity History of Japan Course
Etiquette books from Japan
Japanese Cultural Encounters / Japans Cultural Codewords
13. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona In summary Authentic texts = designed for L1 community
Goal of FL program is to elevate communicative competence
Authentic texts help bridge this gap
Have fun! Make language real for students!
14. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona References Alptekin, C. (2002). Towards Intercultural Communicative Competence. ELT Journal, 56, 1, pp. 57-64.
Day, R. (2003). Authenticity in the Design and Development of Materials. In W.A. Renandya (Ed.), Methodology and Materials Design in Language Teaching: Current Perceptions and Practices and their Implications, pp. 1-11.
Fonseca-Greber, B. & Waugh, L. (2003). On the Radical Difference between the Subject Personal Pronouns in Written and Spoken European French. In P. Leistyna & C.F. Meyer (Eds.). Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Use (pp. 225-240). Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Guariento, W. & Morley, J. (2001). Text and Task Authenticity in the EFL Classroom. ELT Journal, 55, pp. 347-353.
Gunn, C. (2003). Exploring Second Language Communicative Competence. Language Teaching Research, 7, 2, pp. 240-258.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2003). Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring. Heinle: Boston.
Little, D., S. Devitt, D. Singleton. (1988). Authentic Texts in Foreign Language Teaching: Theory and Practice. Dublin: Authentik.
Saville-Troike, M. (1996). The Ethnography of Communication. In S. McKay & N. Hornberger (Eds.). Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching (pp. 351-382). New York: Cambridge University Press. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Oxford, R. (1992). Research on Second Language Learning Strategies. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, pp. 175-187.
Swaffer, J. & Stephens, D. (1981). What Comprehension-Based Classes Look and Feel Like in Theory and Practice. In H. Winitz (Ed.). The Comprehension Approach to Foreign Language Instruction (pp. 254-274). Rowley: Newbury House.
Vellenga, H. (2004). Learning Pragmatics from ESL & EFL Textbooks: How likely? TESL-EJ, 8, 2.
Yano, Y., Long, M. & Ross, S. (1994) The Effects of Simplified and Elaborated Texts on Foreign Language Reading Comprehension. Language Learning, 44:2, pp. 189-219.
15. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Practical Exercise in Class Consider own language you teach
Consider specific tasks related to communicative competence (greetings, refusals, asking favors, etc.)
Consider real items (print, video, objects)
Default example is a series of email exchanges in English.
16. Bryan Meadows
University of Arizona Incorporating authentic texts for the purpose of communicative competence development Components to consider in lesson-planning:
Function of the expression/phrase
Actual samples of use
When is it appropriate?
When is it not appropriate?
Consider reactions given to the expression