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VITAL SIGNS

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Vital signs l.jpg

VITAL SIGNS

Vital signs are measures of various physiological statistics, often taken by health professionals, in order to assess the most basic body functions. Vital signs are an essential part of a case presentation. The act of taking vital signs normally entails recording Body temperature, Pulse rate (or heart rate), Blood pressure, and Respiratory rate

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vital_signs


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HOMEOSTASIS

  • Homeostasis refers to stable operating conditions in the internal environment (in the blood and interstitial fluid). This is how the human body maintains a rather constant internal environment despite changing external conditions. It is brought about by coordinated activities of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems


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VITAL SIGNS MEASUREMENTS ARE THE CLUE AS TO THE BODY’S CONDITION OF HOMEOSTASIS

Temperature

lowest in morning

highest in evening

oral 96.8-99.8 F

rectal higher (0.5 to1.0 F)

Diaphoretic

Febrile, pyrexia or hyperthermia


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MORE VITAL SIGNS

  • Pulse--- normal 60-100

  • Weak or “thready” pulse

    Heart not pumping enough blood

    • Tachycardia - Greater than 100 BPM

      Nervousness

      Anxiety

      Excitability

      Damaged heard

      Interference with oxygen supply (respiration)

      Blood loss

      Shock


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BLOOD PRESSURE

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. For each heartbeat, BP varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. The mean BP decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries, has its greatest decrease as the blood moves through the small arteries and arterioles, and continues to decrease as the blood moves through the capillaries and back to the heart through veins.[1]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_pressure


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Blood Pressure

Normal range

  • systolic –first number

  • Measure of the pumping action of the heart

  • 120 mm HG or below

  • Diastolic

  • Ability of the arterial system to accept the pulse of blood forced into the system when the left ventricle contracts

  • 60-75 mm HG

    Hypertension

  • Aging, poor diet, high cholesterol,

  • Pain, reaction to anxiety, kidney disease

  • Can lead to CVA (stroke) or congestive heart failure

    Hypotension from shock


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Taking a blood pressure

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6saTO8_o2g


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SHOCK

  • “Failure of circulation in which blood pressure is inadequate to support oxygen perfusion of vital tissues and is unable to remove by-products of metabolism.”

    Erhlich Patient Care in Radiography

  • Dangerous

  • Potentially fatal

  • Signs

    • Pallor

    • Pulse? Increase or decrease?

    • Respirations increased

    • Blood pressure- increase or decrease?


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HOW DO I RECOGNIZE SHOCK?


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CAUSES?

  • INJURIES

  • DRUG REACTIONS

  • DIABETES

  • ILLNESSES

    • Bacterial infections

    • Blood loss


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Syncope

Very mild form of shock

Caused by

Fright

Pain

Unpleasant events

NPO

Vertigo????


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Psychologic shock

  • Mental trauma

  • Sudden changes in mood and behavior long after the traumatic event


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WHAT DO I DO?-SHOCK/VERTIGO

  • Familiarize yourself with the location of equipment

  • Assist the patient to lie down. Elevate the feet

  • Call for help!

  • 911

  • If you are only assistant, take blood pressure/pulse

  • Be ready to take CPR

  • Document


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