WITNESSES & INFORMANTS. WITNESSES: ISSUES & RISKS. In proactive investigations: risks to health/safety; entrapment/provocation; ongoing protection. In reactive investigations: Lack of independence; credibility; inducement; protection (& whistleblower/employment issues).
-maintains the quality of that evidence; and
-minimises the trauma suffered.
An application for protective measures (eg, screens) should be rare; likely circumstances are:
A last resort!
For witness anonymity, the court will consider factors such as the following:
An informant will be tasked to use his relationship with the target(s) to gather information covertly. It follows, therefore, that there is likely to be a breach of the right to a private/personal life of the target(s).
Thus, there must be:
This should be a four-stage process:
The overall effect of this is as follows: