Perception continued
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Perception Continued. Visual Capture tendency for vision to dominate the other senses Movie theater – we perceive sounds as coming from the screen in front of us, not from the projector behind us. Visual vs. Major Mistakes?. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=5oHIfeCB3z8.

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Perception Continued

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Perception continued

Perception Continued


Perception continued

  • Visual Capture

    • tendency for vision to dominate the other senses

      • Movie theater – we perceive sounds as coming from the screen in front of us, not from the projector behind us


Visual vs major mistakes

Visual vs. Major Mistakes?

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5oHIfeCB3z8


Perceptual organization gestalt

Perceptual Organization: Gestalt

  • Gestalt: an organized whole

    • Gestalt Psychology: emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes


Perceptual organization

Perceptual Organization

  • Figure and Ground--organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)


Perceptual organization gestalt1

Perceptual Organization: Gestalt

Grouping: the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

Grouping Principles

  • proximity--group nearby figures together

  • similarity--group figures that are similar

  • continuity--perceive continuous patterns

  • closure--fill in gaps

  • connectedness--spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected

closure


Perceptual organization grouping principles

PerceptualOrganization: Grouping Principles

  • Gestalt grouping principles are at work here

  • What do you see?


Reification gestalt property

Reification (Gestalt Property)

  • object is perceived as

    having more spatial

    information than is

    actually present in

    the original stimulus


Depth perception

Depth Perception

FACT: Objects presented to our retinae in 2-D, yet we perceive them in 3-D

How? Depth perception – we estimate distances from us using various strategies


Visual cliffs cues

Visual Cliffs & Cues

Visual Cliff – lab device testing depth perception in infants and young animals.

  • Monocular Cues – available to each eye separately

  • Binocular Cues – require both eyes


Binocular cues help perceive depth

Binocular Cues – help perceive depth

  • Retinal disparity –the greater the difference between two images the retina receives of an object, the closer the object is to the viewer

  • Convergence –extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object


Monocular cues

Monocular Cues

  • Relative motion (motion parallax)

  • Light & Shadow

  • Linear Perspective

  • Relative size

  • Relative clarity

  • Texture gradient

  • Relative height

  • Interposition:


Perceiving motion

Perceiving Motion

  • Motion pictures

    • Really just consecutive images

    • Super quick slide show  we perceive motion

  • Phi phenomenon

    • Illusion of movement created with two or more adjacent lights blink on an off in succession

      • “moving” Christmas lights


Perception continued

  • Perceptual constancy – perceiving objects as unchanging even as retinal images change

    • We recognize objects/people at different angles, distances, lights, etc.

  • Shape & Size constancy- different angles/distances change shape and size, we are still able to recognize objects

    • Ex. 


Size distance relationship

Size- Distance Relationship


Lightness constancy

Lightness Constancy

  • Lightness constancy (aka brightness constancy

    • We perceive an object as having a constant lightness

    • Actual: lightness varies

  • Relative lumanance– comparison to lightness of objects surrounding it


Sensory deprivation restored vision

Sensory Deprivation & Restored Vision

  • “I once was blind, but now I see…”

    • Cortical pathways don’t form correctly

    • Can distinguish color, figure/ground

    • Can’t recognize objects they learned through touch


Perceptual adaptation

Perceptual Adaptation

  • - when visual input changes, we adapt (i.e. new glasses)

  • - shifted reality (for whatever reason) we adapt quickly with assistance and without - we can adapt (not all species can)

  • - we can even adapt to upside down shifts!


Perceptual set

Perceptual set

  • - mental disposition to perceive one thing and not the other

  • ex. if we are told what to expect, we see it or confirm it (subliminal messages, misleading photos)

  • Context effects- we make assumptions based on experience, previous interactions, etc.


Esp extrasensory perception

ESP - extrasensory perception

  • - controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input.

    • - parapsychology - the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis

    • telepathy- mind to mind communication

    • clairvoyance- perceiving remote events (sensing something bad is occurring right now)

    • precognition- perceiving future events (game bets, etc)

    • psychokinesis- the idea of mind over matter (levitating a table, etc)

  • when put to the experimentation phase - no ESP has been proven (remember our first video we watched?)


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