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Intro to Remote Sensing. Lecture 1. What is remote sensing. Remote Sensing: remote sensing is science of acquiring, processing, and interpreting

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what is remote sensing
What is remote sensing
  • Remote Sensing: remote sensing is science of
    • acquiring,
    • processing, and
    • interpreting

images and related data that are obtained from ground-based, air-or space-borne instruments that record the interaction between matter (target) and electromagnetic radiation.

  • Remote Sensing: using electromagnetic spectrum to image the land, ocean, and atmosphere.
  • In this class, we will mostly focus on the
    • principles and techniques for data collection and the interaction of electromagnetic energy with the Earth\'s surface
    • some application examples
    • also you will get familiar with ENVI, an image processing software.
electromagnetic spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Source: http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/PAIS/DIAL.html

slide4

1 2 3 4 5 7

What we measure in remote sensing?

slide5

http://www.asdi.com/

In-Situ scale measurements

slide7
Many more:
    • Temperature
    • Soil moisture
    • Mineral and rock types
    • Rainfall
    • Snow cover, snow depth or snow water equivalent
    • Vegetation type and biomass
    • Sea ice properties (concentration, thickness, extent, area)
    • Elevation and change
    • Aerosol, gas types and concentration
    • You might name a few more?
remote sensing platforms
Remote sensing platforms

Ground-based

Airplane-based

Satellite-based

slide10

Busy Traffic

Data acquisition

applications of national priority

Carbon

Management

Aviation

Energy Management

Public Health

Coastal Management

Water

Management

Homeland

Security

Disaster Management

Agricultural

Efficiency

Ecological Forecasting

Invasive Species

Air Quality

Applications of National Priority
history of remote sensing
History of Remote Sensing
  • Aerial photography is the original form of remote sensing (using visible spectrum) started in 1909
  • Aerial photographic reconnaissance was widely used after 1915 in WWI.
  • Photogrammetric Engineering, the official monthly publication of the American Society of Photogrammetry, was first published in 1934.
  • Color infrared photography began 1931, then was widely used in agriculture and forestry.
  • Development of radar (1930-1940).
  • During WWII, non-visible spectrum (infrared and radar) were used as tools in remote sensing.
  • After the first man-made satellite (Sputnik 1) was launched on 4 October 1957 by Soviet Union, remote sensing moved to outer space, ignited the Space Race within the Cold War.
  • The United States\' Explorer 6 transmitted the first space photograph of the Earth in August 1959.
  • The first systematic meteorological satellite observation came with the launch of the United States\' TIROS 1 in 1960.
  • Landsat 1 (originally called the Earth Resources Technology Satellite or ERTS) was the first satellite to collect data on the Earth\'s natural resources. It was launched on 23 July 1972.
  • Hyperspectral remote sensing emerged (1980s), widely used in mineral, oil, etc. exploration.
  • Since then, a large number and advanced types of remote sensing systems have been developed.
research systems to operational systems

Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation

NCEP

Research Systems to Operational Systems

Imaging and Sounding

SeaWiFS

Terra

Aqua

NPOESS

NPP

Solar Irradiance, Ozone, and Aerosols

In operation

SORCE

ACRIMsat

Glory

NPOESS

Under

Development

SAGE III

AURA

NPOESS

NPP

In Formulation

Observation

Tech

Development

Atmospheric Composition

UARS

AURA

TBD

Ocean Surface Topography

Jason

OSTM

NOAA/EUMETSAT

* Canceled flight mission; gleaning technology for GOES-R

Land Cover/Land Use Change

Operational NPOESS

Landsat 7

LDCM

GIFTS*

GOES

Tech

Tropo Winds

TBD

Data Assim

Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center

NWS

NASA & NOAA jointly funding NRC studies on improving transition

from terra aqua to npp to jpss
From Terra, Aqua to NPP to JPSS

NPP (2011, Oct)

CrIS/ATMS

VIIRS

OMPS

Coriolis (2003)

WindSat

Terra (1999)

Aqua (2002)

AIRS, AMSU & MODIS

METOP (2006)

IASI/AMSU/MHS & AVHRR

JPSS/ (2016, 2019)

CrIS/ATMS, VIIRS, CMIS,

OMPS & ERBS

Use of Advanced Sounder Data for Improved

Weather Forecasting & Numerical Weather Prediction

NOAA Real-Time Data Delivery Timeline

Ground Station Scenario

NWS/NCEP

GSFC/DAO

ECMWF

UKMO

FNMOC

Meteo-France

BMRC-Australia

Met Serv Canada

NOAA

Real-time

User

NWP

Forecasts

IDPS

C3S

Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation

npoess jpss and npp
NPOESS, JPSS, and NPP
  • NPP and NPOESS have a long, complicated history
  • The tri-agency NPOESS partnership (DOD, NOAA, NASA) has been dissolved
    • “NPOESS” is no more
    • The NOAA-NASA partnership continues under the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) – afternoon platform series
    • DOD is continuing alone -- early morning platform series
    • NASA’s NPP mission has not changed its name – it is still the NPOESS Preparatory Project.
  • The roles and responsibilities of the NPP Science Team have not changed (at its core, the primary work remains EDR evaluation and related algorithm improvements for climate science!)
npp goals
NPP Goals

The NPP mission has two major goals:

  • To provide a continuation of the EOS record of climate-quality observations after EOS Terra, Aqua, and Aura (i.e., it will extend key Earth system data records and/or climate data records of equal or better quality and uncertainty in comparison to those of the Terra, Aqua, and Aura sensors), and
  • To provide risk reduction for JPSS instruments, algorithms, ground data processing, archive, and distribution prior to the launch of the first JPSS spacecraft (but note that there are now plans to use NPP data operationally)
trend and future of remote sensing 1
Trend and Future of Remote Sensing (1)
  • High spatial resolution

- IKONOS launched in 1999 by Space Imaging

(4 m multi-spectral and 1 m panchromatic)

- QuickBird launched in 2001 by DIGITALGLOBE

(2.44 m multi-spectral and 61 cm panchromatic)

  • High spectral resolution

- AVIRIS, 10nm and 20 m, 224 bands

- Hyperion launched in 2000, 10nm and 30m, 220 bands

  • High radiometric resolution

- 8 bits to 12 bits

  • High temporal resolution

- GOES 15-30 minutes

- NEXRAD 6 or 10 minutes

trend and future of remote sensing 2
Trend and Future of Remote Sensing (2)
  • Globe coverage, high repeatability (or improved temporal resolution)

- AVHRR, 1100m, morning or afternoon

- MODIS, 250-1000m, morning or afternoon

- NPOESS (will be launched in 2013), 370-740m, 4 hours

  • Real-time or near real-time availability

- MODIS available online in the second day ?

- NEXRAD available online in 6 minutes

- NPOESS available online in 15 minutes

  • Cost free or affordable

- Most of the federal collected images are free available or lower

cost, while commercial high resolution images are affordable.

  • Integrated remote sensing and GIS

- Remote sensing applications with the support of GIS

- Remote sensing data as a major GIS data source

major image processing software
Major image processing software
  • ENVI/IDL: http://www.rsinc.com/
  • ERDAS Imagine: http://www.gis.leica-geosystems.com/Products/Imagine/
  • PCI Geomatics: http://www.pci.on.ca/
  • ER Mapper: http://www.ermapper.com/
  • INTEGRAPH: http://imgs.intergraph.com/gimage/
  • IDRIS:
  • Ecognition: http://www.definiens-imaging.com/ecognition/pro/40.htm
  • See5 and decision tree
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