chapter 5 quality
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 5 Quality

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 89

Chapter 5 Quality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 91 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 5 Quality. Learning Objectives. Be Able to Apply Concepts in Learning Goals Determine Product Reliability Construct and Interpret Control Charts Determine Process Capability Be Able to Use Equations Listed in End of Chapter Equation Summary. Continuous improvement.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 5 Quality' - ardice


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2

Learning Objectives

  • Be Able to Apply Concepts in Learning Goals
  • Determine Product Reliability
  • Construct and Interpret Control Charts
  • Determine Process Capability
  • Be Able to Use Equations Listed in End of Chapter Equation Summary
tqm wheel

Continuous improvement

Employee involvement

Customer satisfaction

TQMWheel

tqm wheel1

Product/service design

Process design

Continuous improvement

Employee involvement

Customer satisfaction

Problem-solving tools

Purchasing

Benchmarking

TQMWheel

customer driven definitions of quality
Customer-DrivenDefinitions of Quality
  • Conformance to Specifications
  • Value
  • Fitness for Use
  • Support
  • Psychological Impressions
the costs of poor quality
The Costs of Poor Quality
  • Prevention Costs
  • Appraisal Costs
  • Internal Failure Costs
  • External Failure Costs
employee involvement
EmployeeInvolvement
  • Cultural Change
  • Teams
  • Individual Development
  • Awards and Incentives
slide8

Plan

Act

Do

Check

Deming

Wheel

reliability

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

reliability1

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

reliability2

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.90)(0.85) = 0.76

reliability3

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.90)(0.85) = 0.76

reliability4

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.95)(0.90) = 0.85

reliability5

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.95)(0.90) = 0.85

quality function deployment

QualityFunctionDeployment

The House of Quality

quality function deployment1

QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Customer

quality function deployment2

QualityFunctionDeployment

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

quality function deployment3

QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

quality function deployment4

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

quality function deployment5

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

quality function deployment6

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

quality function deployment7

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

quality function deployment8

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

Technical Comparison

quality function deployment9

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

Technical Comparison

benchmarking
Benchmarking
  • Planning
  • Analysis
  • Integration
  • Action
data analysis tools

Data Analysis Tools

  • Checklists
  • Histograms and Bar Charts
  • Pareto Charts
  • Scatter Diagrams
  • Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
  • Graphs
wellington fiber board co

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Tools for Improving Quality

  • Step 1—Checklist
  • Step 2—Pareto chart
  • Step 3—Cause-and-effect diagram
  • Step 4—Bar chart
wellington fiber board co1

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board

D. Ragged edges

Total

wellington fiber board co2

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board /

D. Ragged edges

Total

wellington fiber board co3

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board //

D. Ragged edges

Total

wellington fiber board co4

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric /

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board //

D. Ragged edges

Total

wellington fiber board co5

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric /

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board //

D. Ragged edges /

Total

wellington fiber board co6

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect type Tally Total

A. Tears in fabric //// 4

B. Discolored fabric /// 3

C. Broken fiber board //// //// //// ////

//// //// //// / 36

D. Ragged edges //// // 7

Total 50

wellington fiber board co7

Pareto Chart

50

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

Defect type

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

wellington fiber board co8

50

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

C

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

D

A

B

Defect type

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Pareto Chart

wellington fiber board co9

50

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

C

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

D

A

B

Defect type

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Pareto Chart

wellington fiber board co10

People

Materials

Training

Absenteeism

Communication

Out of specification

Not available

Broken fiber board

Machine maintenance

Machine speed

Wrong setup

Humidity

Schedule changes

Other

Process

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Cause-and-Effect Diagram

wellington fiber board co11

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

20

15

10

5

0

Bar Chart

Number of broken fiber boards

First Second Third

Shift

slide39

Mean

Process

distribution

425 Grams

Sample Means and the

Process Distribution

slide40

Mean

Distribution of

sample means

425 Grams

Sample Means and the

Process Distribution

Process

distribution

slide41

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL

slide42

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL

1 2 3

Samples

slide43

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL

1 2 3

Samples

slide44

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL

Assignable causes likely

1 2 3

Samples

using control charts for process improvement
Using Control Charts for Process Improvement
  • Measure the process
  • When changes are indicated, find the assignable cause
  • Eliminate problems, incorporate improvements
  • Repeat the cycle
control chart examples
Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

control chart examples1
Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

control chart examples2
Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

control chart examples3
Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

control chart examples4
Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number

control charts types
Control Charts Types
  • Control charts for attributes
    • Yes/no
    • Off/on
  • Control charts for variables
    • Length
    • Width
    • Weight
slide52

Control Charts

for Variables

West Allis Industries

slide53

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

5

slide54

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047

slide55

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

slide56

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

slide57

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

slide58

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

slide59

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

(0.5014 + 0.5022 +

0.5009 + 0.5027)/4 = 0.5018

slide60

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018

(0.5014 + 0.5022 +

0.5009 + 0.5027)/4 = 0.5018

slide61

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.0021 0.5027

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023 0.0017 0.5026

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.0026 0.5020

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047 0.0022 0.5045

_

slide62

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number 1 2 3 4 Rx

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.0021 0.5027

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023 0.0017 0.5026

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.0026 0.5020

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047 0.0022 0.5045

R = 0.0021

x = 0.5027

_

=

slide63

R = 0.0021

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts – Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

slide64

Control Chart Factors

Factor for UCL Factor for Factor

Size of and LCL for LCL for UCL for

Sample x-Charts R-Charts R-Charts

(n) (A2) (D3) (D4)

2 1.880 0 3.267

3 1.023 0 2.575

4 0.729 0 2.282

5 0.577 0 2.115

6 0.483 0 2.004

7 0.419 0.076 1.924

Control Charts

for Variables

slide65

Control Chart Factors

Factor for UCL Factor for Factor

Size of and LCL for LCL for UCL for

Sample x-Charts R-Charts R-Charts

(n) (A2) (D3) (D4)

2 1.880 0 3.267

3 1.023 0 2.575

4 0.729 0 2.282

5 0.577 0 2.115

6 0.483 0 2.004

7 0.419 0.076 1.924

R = 0.0020 D4 = 2.2080

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts - Special Metal Screw

R - Charts

slide66

R = 0.0021 D4 = 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

slide67

R = 0.0021 D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.

slide68

R = 0.0021 D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.

LCLR = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in.

slide69

R = 0.0021 D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.

LCLR = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in.

range chart special metal screw

R-Chart

UCLR = 0.00479

0.005 -

0.0045 -

0.004 -

0.0035 -

0.003 -

0.0025 -

0.002 -

0.0015 -

0.001 -

0.0005 -

0 -

R = 0.0021

Range

LCLR = 0

| | | | | | | |

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

Range Chart - Special Metal Screw
slide71

X-Charts

R = 0.0021

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

slide72

Control Chart Factors

Factor for UCL Factor for Factor

Size of and LCL for LCL for UCL for

Sample x-Charts R-Charts R-Charts

(n) (A2) (D3) (D4)

2 1.880 0 3.267

3 1.023 0 2.575

4 0.729 0 2.282

5 0.577 0 2.115

6 0.483 0 2.004

7 0.419 0.076 1.924

x - Charts

R = 0.0020

x = 0.5025

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x - A2R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts - Special Metal Screw

slide73

x- Charts

R = 0.0021 A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

slide74

x- Charts

R = 0.0021 A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

UCLx = 0.5027 + 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5042 in.

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

slide75

x- Charts

R = 0.0021 A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

UCLx = 0.5027 + 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5042 in.

LCLx = 0.5027 – 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5012 in.

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

x chart special metal screw

X-Bar Chart

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

LCLX = 0.5012

| | | | | | | |

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

x-Chart—Special Metal Screw
x chart special metal screw1

X-Bar Chart

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

LCLX = 0.5012

| | | | | | | |

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

x-Chart— Special Metal Screw
x chart special metal screw2

X-Bar Chart

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

  • Measure the process
  • Find the assignable cause
  • Eliminate the problem
  • Repeat the cycle

LCLX = 0.5012

| | | | | | | |

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sample Number

x-Chart—Special Metal Screw
control chart for attributes
Control Chart for Attributes
  • p-chart
    • Used for controlling the proportion of defectives generated by a process
  • c-chart
    • Used for controlling the number of defects when more than one defect can be present in a particular product or service
process capability
Process Capability

Nominal

value

Process distribution

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Hours

800

1000

1200

(a) Process is capable

process capability1
Process Capability

Nominal

value

Process distribution

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Hours

800

1000

1200

(b) Process is not capable

process capability2
Process Capability

Nominal value

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean

process capability3
Process Capability

Nominal value

Four sigma

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean

process capability4
Process Capability

Nominal value

Six sigma

Four sigma

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean

slide87

ISO

9000

ISO

14000

slide88

Criteria for Performance Excellence

  • Category 1—Leadership 120 points
  • Category 2—Strategic Planning 85 points
  • Category 3—Customer and Market Focus 85 points
  • Category 4—Information and Analysis 90 points
  • Category 5—Human Resource Focus 85 points
  • Category 6—Process Management 85 points
  • Category 7—Business Results 450 points
slide89

Leadership—Leadership system, values, expectations, and public responsibilities

  • Strategic Planning—The effectiveness of strategic and business planning and deployment of plans, focusing on performance requirements
  • Customer and Market Focus—How the company determines customer and market requirements and achieves customers satisfaction
  • Information and Analysis—The effectiveness of information systems to support customer driven performance excellence and marketplace success
  • Human Resource Focus—The success of efforts to realize the full potential of the work force to create a high-performance organization
  • Process Management—The effectiveness of systems and processes for assuring the quality of products and services
  • Business Results—Performance results and competitive benchmarking in customer satisfaction, financials, human resources, suppliers, and operations
ad