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Chapter 5 Quality. Learning Objectives. Be Able to Apply Concepts in Learning Goals Determine Product Reliability Construct and Interpret Control Charts Determine Process Capability Be Able to Use Equations Listed in End of Chapter Equation Summary. Continuous improvement.

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Chapter 5 quality

Chapter 5 Quality


Chapter 5 quality

Learning Objectives

  • Be Able to Apply Concepts in Learning Goals

  • Determine Product Reliability

  • Construct and Interpret Control Charts

  • Determine Process Capability

  • Be Able to Use Equations Listed in End of Chapter Equation Summary


Tqm wheel

Continuous improvement

Employee involvement

Customer satisfaction

TQMWheel


Tqm wheel1

Product/service design

Process design

Continuous improvement

Employee involvement

Customer satisfaction

Problem-solving tools

Purchasing

Benchmarking

TQMWheel


Customer driven definitions of quality

Customer-DrivenDefinitions of Quality

  • Conformance to Specifications

  • Value

  • Fitness for Use

  • Support

  • Psychological Impressions


The costs of poor quality

The Costs of Poor Quality

  • Prevention Costs

  • Appraisal Costs

  • Internal Failure Costs

  • External Failure Costs


Employee involvement

EmployeeInvolvement

  • Cultural Change

  • Teams

  • Individual Development

  • Awards and Incentives


Chapter 5 quality

Plan

Act

Do

Check

Deming

Wheel


Reliability

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n


Reliability1

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n


Reliability2

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.90)(0.85) = 0.76


Reliability3

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.90)(0.85) = 0.76


Reliability4

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.95)(0.90) = 0.85


Reliability5

Reliability

Product reliability

rs= (r1)(r2) . . . (rn)

where

rs = reliability of the complete product

n = number of subsystems

rn = reliability of the subsystem or component n

rs = (0.99)(0.95)(0.90) = 0.85


Quality function deployment

QualityFunctionDeployment

The House of Quality


Quality function deployment1

QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Customer


Quality function deployment2

QualityFunctionDeployment

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer


Quality function deployment3

QualityFunctionDeployment

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer


Quality function deployment4

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer


Quality function deployment5

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer


Quality function deployment6

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations


Quality function deployment7

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations


Quality function deployment8

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

Technical Comparison


Quality function deployment9

QualityFunctionDeployment

Trade-offs

Voice of the Engineer

Competitive Analysis

Voice of the Customer

Correlations

Technical Comparison


Benchmarking

Benchmarking

  • Planning

  • Analysis

  • Integration

  • Action


Data analysis tools

Data Analysis Tools

  • Checklists

  • Histograms and Bar Charts

  • Pareto Charts

  • Scatter Diagrams

  • Cause-and-Effect Diagrams

  • Graphs


Wellington fiber board co

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Tools for Improving Quality

  • Step 1—Checklist

  • Step 2—Pareto chart

  • Step 3—Cause-and-effect diagram

  • Step 4—Bar chart


Wellington fiber board co1

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect typeTallyTotal

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board

D. Ragged edges

Total


Wellington fiber board co2

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect typeTallyTotal

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board/

D. Ragged edges

Total


Wellington fiber board co3

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect typeTallyTotal

A. Tears in fabric

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board//

D. Ragged edges

Total


Wellington fiber board co4

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect typeTallyTotal

A. Tears in fabric/

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board//

D. Ragged edges

Total


Wellington fiber board co5

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect typeTallyTotal

A. Tears in fabric/

B. Discolored fabric

C. Broken fiber board//

D. Ragged edges/

Total


Wellington fiber board co6

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Checklists

Headliner Defects

Defect typeTallyTotal

A. Tears in fabric//// 4

B. Discolored fabric/// 3

C. Broken fiber board//// //// //// ////

//// //// //// /36

D. Ragged edges//// // 7

Total50


Wellington fiber board co7

Pareto Chart

50

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

Defect type

Wellington Fiber Board Co.


Wellington fiber board co8

50

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

C

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

D

A

B

Defect type

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Pareto Chart


Wellington fiber board co9

50

40

30

20

10

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

C

Cumulative percentage

Number of defects

D

A

B

Defect type

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Pareto Chart


Wellington fiber board co10

People

Materials

Training

Absenteeism

Communication

Out of specification

Not available

Broken fiber board

Machine maintenance

Machine speed

Wrong setup

Humidity

Schedule changes

Other

Process

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

Cause-and-Effect Diagram


Wellington fiber board co11

Wellington Fiber Board Co.

20

15

10

5

0

Bar Chart

Number of broken fiber boards

FirstSecondThird

Shift


Chapter 5 quality

Mean

Process

distribution

425 Grams

Sample Means and the

Process Distribution


Chapter 5 quality

Mean

Distribution of

sample means

425 Grams

Sample Means and the

Process Distribution

Process

distribution


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL

1 2 3

Samples


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL

1 2 3

Samples


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL

Assignable causes likely

1 2 3

Samples


Using control charts for process improvement

Using Control Charts for Process Improvement

  • Measure the process

  • When changes are indicated, find the assignable cause

  • Eliminate problems, incorporate improvements

  • Repeat the cycle


Control chart examples

Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number


Control chart examples1

Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number


Control chart examples2

Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number


Control chart examples3

Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number


Control chart examples4

Control Chart Examples

UCL

Nominal

Variations

LCL

Sample number


Control charts types

Control Charts Types

  • Control charts for attributes

    • Yes/no

    • Off/on

  • Control charts for variables

    • Length

    • Width

    • Weight


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

West Allis Industries


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234

1

2

3

4

5


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234

10.50140.50220.50090.5027

20.50210.50410.50240.5020

30.50180.50260.50350.5023

40.50080.50340.50240.5015

50.50410.50560.50340.5047


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234Rx

10.50140.50220.50090.5027

20.50210.50410.50240.5020

30.50180.50260.50350.5023

40.50080.50340.50240.5015

50.50410.50560.50340.5039

_


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234Rx

10.50140.50220.50090.5027

20.50210.50410.50240.5020

30.50180.50260.50350.5023

40.50080.50340.50240.5015

50.50410.50560.50340.5039

_


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234Rx

10.50140.50220.50090.5027

20.50210.50410.50240.5020

30.50180.50260.50350.5023

40.50080.50340.50240.5015

50.50410.50560.50340.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009=0.0018


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234Rx

10.50140.50220.50090.50270.0018

20.50210.50410.50240.5020

30.50180.50260.50350.5023

40.50080.50340.50240.5015

50.50410.50560.50340.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009=0.0018


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234Rx

10.50140.50220.50090.50270.00180.5018

20.50210.50410.50240.5020

30.50180.50260.50350.5023

40.50080.50340.50240.5015

50.50410.50560.50340.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009=0.0018

(0.5014 + 0.5022 +

0.5009 + 0.5027)/4=0.5018


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234Rx

10.50140.50220.50090.50270.00180.5018

20.50210.50410.50240.5020

30.50180.50260.50350.5023

40.50080.50340.50240.5015

50.50410.50560.50340.5039

_

0.5027 – 0.5009=0.0018

(0.5014 + 0.5022 +

0.5009 + 0.5027)/4=0.5018


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234Rx

10.50140.50220.50090.50270.00180.5018

20.50210.50410.50240.50200.00210.5027

30.50180.50260.50350.50230.00170.5026

40.50080.50340.50240.50150.00260.5020

50.50410.50560.50340.50470.00220.5045

_


Chapter 5 quality

Control Charts

for Variables

Special Metal Screw

Sample Sample

Number1234Rx

10.50140.50220.50090.50270.00180.5018

20.50210.50410.50240.50200.00210.5027

30.50180.50260.50350.50230.00170.5026

40.50080.50340.50240.50150.00260.5020

50.50410.50560.50340.50470.00220.5045

R =0.0021

x =0.5027

_

=


Chapter 5 quality

R = 0.0021

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts – Special Metal Screw

R-Charts


Chapter 5 quality

Control Chart Factors

Factor for UCLFactor forFactor

Size ofand LCL forLCL forUCL for

Samplex-ChartsR-ChartsR-Charts

(n)(A2)(D3)(D4)

21.880 03.267

31.023 02.575

40.729 02.282

50.577 02.115

60.483 02.004

70.419 0.0761.924

Control Charts

for Variables


Chapter 5 quality

Control Chart Factors

Factor for UCLFactor forFactor

Size ofand LCL forLCL forUCL for

Samplex-ChartsR-ChartsR-Charts

(n)(A2)(D3)(D4)

21.880 03.267

31.023 02.575

40.729 02.282

50.577 02.115

60.483 02.004

70.419 0.0761.924

R = 0.0020 D4 = 2.2080

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts - Special Metal Screw

R - Charts


Chapter 5 quality

R = 0.0021D4 = 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts


Chapter 5 quality

R = 0.0021D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.


Chapter 5 quality

R = 0.0021D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.

LCLR = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in.


Chapter 5 quality

R = 0.0021D4= 2.282

D3 = 0

UCLR = D4R

LCLR = D3R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw

R-Charts

UCLR = 2.282 (0.0021) = 0.00479 in.

LCLR = 0 (0.0021) = 0 in.


Range chart special metal screw

R-Chart

UCLR = 0.00479

0.005 -

0.0045 -

0.004 -

0.0035 -

0.003 -

0.0025 -

0.002 -

0.0015 -

0.001 -

0.0005 -

0 -

R = 0.0021

Range

LCLR = 0

||||||||

01234567

Sample Number

Range Chart - Special Metal Screw


Chapter 5 quality

X-Charts

R = 0.0021

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw


Chapter 5 quality

Control Chart Factors

Factor for UCLFactor forFactor

Size ofand LCL forLCL forUCL for

Samplex-ChartsR-ChartsR-Charts

(n)(A2)(D3)(D4)

21.88003.267

31.02302.575

40.72902.282

50.57702.115

60.48302.004

70.4190.0761.924

x - Charts

R = 0.0020

x = 0.5025

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x - A2R

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts - Special Metal Screw


Chapter 5 quality

x- Charts

R = 0.0021A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw


Chapter 5 quality

x- Charts

R = 0.0021A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

UCLx = 0.5027 + 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5042 in.

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw


Chapter 5 quality

x- Charts

R = 0.0021A2 = 0.729

x = 0.5027

=

=

UCLx = x + A2R

LCLx = x–A2R

=

UCLx = 0.5027 + 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5042 in.

LCLx = 0.5027 – 0.729 (0.0021) = 0.5012 in.

Control Charts

for Variables

Control Charts—Special Metal Screw


X chart special metal screw

X-Bar Chart

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

LCLX = 0.5012

||||||||

01234567

Sample Number

x-Chart—Special Metal Screw


X chart special metal screw1

X-Bar Chart

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

LCLX = 0.5012

||||||||

01234567

Sample Number

x-Chart— Special Metal Screw


X chart special metal screw2

X-Bar Chart

0.505 -

0.5045 -

0.504 -

0.5035 -

0.503 -

0.5025 -

0.502 -

0.5015 -

0.501 -

UCLX = 0.5042

=

X = 0.5027

Average

  • Measure the process

  • Find the assignable cause

  • Eliminate the problem

  • Repeat the cycle

LCLX = 0.5012

||||||||

01234567

Sample Number

x-Chart—Special Metal Screw


Control chart for attributes

Control Chart for Attributes

  • p-chart

    • Used for controlling the proportion of defectives generated by a process

  • c-chart

    • Used for controlling the number of defects when more than one defect can be present in a particular product or service


P chart

p-chart


C chart

c-chart


Process capability

Process Capability

Nominal

value

Process distribution

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Hours

800

1000

1200

(a) Process is capable


Process capability1

Process Capability

Nominal

value

Process distribution

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Hours

800

1000

1200

(b) Process is not capable


Process capability2

Process Capability

Nominal value

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean


Process capability3

Process Capability

Nominal value

Four sigma

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean


Process capability4

Process Capability

Nominal value

Six sigma

Four sigma

Two sigma

Lower

specification

Upper

specification

Mean


Chapter 5 quality

ISO

9000

ISO

14000


Chapter 5 quality

Criteria for Performance Excellence

  • Category 1—Leadership120 points

  • Category 2—Strategic Planning85 points

  • Category 3—Customer and Market Focus85 points

  • Category 4—Information and Analysis90 points

  • Category 5—Human Resource Focus85 points

  • Category 6—Process Management85 points

  • Category 7—Business Results450 points


Chapter 5 quality

  • Leadership—Leadership system, values, expectations, and public responsibilities

  • Strategic Planning—The effectiveness of strategic and business planning and deployment of plans, focusing on performance requirements

  • Customer and Market Focus—How the company determines customer and market requirements and achievescustomers satisfaction

  • Information and Analysis—The effectiveness of information systems to support customer driven performance excellence and marketplace success

  • Human Resource Focus—The success of efforts to realize the full potential of the work force to create a high-performance organization

  • Process Management—The effectiveness of systems and processes for assuring the quality of products and services

  • Business Results—Performance results and competitive benchmarking in customer satisfaction, financials, human resources, suppliers, and operations


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