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Anatomy in a Nutshell. A Review of Human Body Systems -take notes accordingly-. Comparing Tissues. n erve cell. bone cell. cardiac cell. n erve tissue. cardiac tissue. bone tissue. Locomotion – Bones and Muscles. Bones m uscles attach to bones via tendons

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anatomy in a nutshell

Anatomy in a Nutshell

A Review of Human Body Systems

-take notes accordingly-

comparing tissues
Comparing Tissues

nerve cell

bone cell

cardiac cell

nerve tissue

cardiac tissue

bone tissue

locomotion bones and muscles
Locomotion – Bones and Muscles
  • Bones
    • muscles attach to bones via tendons
    • two bones connecting make a joint, which are connected by ligaments
    • bones are living tissue that contain marrow
      • the marrow makes red and white blood cells
  • Muscles
    • Three types of muscle tissue:

- skeletal

- cardiac

- smooth

slide4
Skin
  • Also known as the Integumentary System
    • skin aids in body homeostasis
      • temperature regulation
      • protection against disease/bacteria
  • UV rays can cause skin cells to mutate. This is known as melanoma (skin cancer)
digestion

The goal of digestion is to break down food so it’s small enough to be used by EVERY cell in your body for cellular respiration.

Digestion
  • Digestion can be both chemical and mechanical.
  • Epiglottis prevents food from entering respiratory system
  • Accessory organs provide digestive juices:
    • liver/gall bladder – bile
    • pancreas - insulin

Mouth

Esophagus

Stomach

Small Intestine

Large Intestine

Anus

excretion
Excretion
  • Kidneys contain nephrons that filter and clean the blood.
  • The filtered waste travels down utreters and collects in the urinary bladder – we call the waste urine.
  • When the bladder is full, the urine leaves through the urethra.
respiration
Respiration

Breathing

  • Respiration allows our body to take in OXYGEN needed for cellular respiration.
  • The oxygen enters the blood steam by diffusion out of the alveoli.

Nasal Cavity

Pharynx

Larynx

Trachea

Bronchi

Bronchioles

Alveoli

circulation

BLOOD IS:

  • Plasma
  • RBCs
  • WBCs
  • Platelets
Circulation

Artery = AWAY

Vein = BACK

  • When oxygen enters our blood stream through breathing, our HEART must pump that oxygenated blood throughout the body.
    • Arteries – bring blood away from heart
    • Capillaries – allows for diffusion of O2 to specific body cells
    • Veins – bring blood back to heart
immune
Immune

Phagocytosis

  • Three lines of defense
    • external barriers
    • internal barriers (eater cells)
    • specific defense (smart cells)
      • B-cells and T-Cells
  • Viral Infection
    • has an antigen on it that the host identifies as foreign
      • treated with vaccines/previous exposure
  • Bacterial Infection
    • can be treated with antibiotics
      • too much of an antibiotic can cause resistant bacteria
nervous

Autosomatic – Involuntary: like digestion

  • Somatic – Voluntary:
  • like muscle movement
Nervous
  • CNS – brain, spinal cord
  • PNS – sensory and motor neurons
  • Nerve Circuit: sensory neurons  interneuron  motor neuron
  • Brain
    • Cerebrum: Higher Level Thinking
    • Medulla Oblongata/Pons/Cerebellum: Primitive Brain

synapse – the junction between nerve cells where chemical or electrical signals are sent.

endocrine
Endocrine
  • Glands secrete hormones that help with body homeostasis.
    • Endocrine – ductless, hormones secreted in blood stream
    • Exocrine – secreted by a duct
  • These hormones are activated by FEEDBACK MECHANISMS.
  • Key Organs and their Hormones:
    • Pancreas:Insulin
    • Testes:Testosterone
    • Ovary:Estrogen
reproductive
Reproductive
  • GAMETES = Sex Cells!
  • All sex cells are made via meiosis, they contain half the chromosome number (haploid).
        • egg = female gamete
        • sperm = male gamete
  • The sperm and the egg uniting is fertilization.
      • Zygote  Blastula  Embryo  Fetus
  • The fetus develops in the woman’s uterus.

The sperm will carry either the X or Y chromosome.

23

Egg Develops in Ovulation!

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