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Household Water Conservation. Where is Water Used in PA?. Water Use (million gallons per day). Thermoelectric (not shown) = 5,930. Shifting Population Changes Local Water Use. ~20,000 new wells each year. Wells Drilled 1960-1994. Household Water Use in PA. 1900 5 million residents

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Household Water Conservation

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Household water conservation

Household Water

Conservation


Where is water used in pa

Where is Water Used in PA?

Water Use (million gallons per day)

Thermoelectric (not shown) = 5,930


Shifting population changes local water use

Shifting Population Changes Local Water Use

~20,000 new wells each year

Wells Drilled 1960-1994


Household water use in pa

Household Water Use in PA

  • 1900

    • 5 million residents

    • 5 gallons per person per day

  • 1995

    • 12 million residents

    • 62 gallons per person per day


Where is water used in the home 69 3 gallons per person per day

Where is Water Used in the Home(69.3 gallons per person per day)


Why conserve water

Why Conserve Water?

  • Save money !!

    • Energy savings (from heating water)

    • Water savings (for those that pay for water)

  • Conserve your supply for later use

  • Rebates

    • Some utilities offer incentives for conservation

  • Reduce the load to your septic or sewer system

  • Make environmentally conscious decisions when possible


Achieving water conservation

Achieving Water Conservation

  • Changes in habits

    • Little or no cost

    • Quick effect

    • Usually temporary

  • Water-saving appliances, fixtures

    • Can be expensive

    • Most are easily installed

    • Very effective

    • Permanent


Household water conservation

Changes in Habits

  • Often touted during droughts

  • Examples

    • Shorter showers

    • Wait for full laundry loads

    • Less frequent toilet flushing

    • Reduce outdoor watering

    • No car washing


Toilets

Toilets

  • Largest user of water in most homes

  • Average use = 5.1 flushes per person per day

  • Conventional = 4 to 5 gallons per flush (gpf)

  • New toilets = 1.6 gpf

  • 1.6 gpf toilets have been required since 1994


Clothes washers

Clothes Washers

  • Average use = 2.6 loads per week per person

  • Conventional = 45 to 51 gallons per load (gpl)

  • Front-loading = 27 gpl

  • Disadvantages

    • More expensive initially

    • Bending to get clothes

    • Longer wash time

  • Advantages

    • Significant energy savings

    • Less detergent

    • Less drying needed

    • Larger load capacity

    • Cleaner clothes

    • Less wear and tear on clothes


Dish washer

Dish Washer

  • 50% of homes have one

  • Similar water use to hand-washing

  • Average use = about 1 load per week per person

  • Conventional = about 11 gallons per load

  • Water efficient = 4 to 7 gpl


Other water saving toilets

Other Water-Saving Toilets

Composting toilet and composter

  • Mostly commercial or recreational uses

  • Air-assisted

    • Utilizes air compressor

    • About 0.5 gallons per flush

    • Noisy

  • Composting

    • No water use

    • Requires careful maintenance

    • Best for low-use situations

Air-assisted


Faucets

Faucets

  • Average use = 4 minutes per day per person

  • Conventional = 3 to 6 gallons per minute

  • Low-volume = 1.5 gallons per minute

  • (as low as 0.5 gpm for bathroom)

  • Very inexpensive

  • 2.5 gpm faucets required since 1994


Showerheads

Showerheads

  • Average use = 8 minutes per day per person

  • Conventional = 3 to 6 gallons per minute

  • Low-volume = 2 to 2.5 gallons per minute

  • Some have manual shut-off for extra savings

  • Very inexpensive

  • Savings depend on habits also

  • 2.5 gpm showerhead required since 1994


Effect of water conservation

Effect of Water Conservation

Water Use (gallons per day)

Normal use = 68 gallons per day per person

Conservation use = 38 gallons per day per person


Estimated annual water and energy savings family of four

Estimated Annual Water and Energy Savings(family of four)

Water SavingsEnergy Savings

Appliance(gallons)(kilowatt hours)

Low-flush toilet18,000 0

Low-volume showerhead 4,000 500

Low-volume faucet 9,000 500

Front-loading washer13,0001,300

Water-efficient dishwasher 600 150

Total44,6002,450

Annual Dollar Savings

Water44,600 gallons @ $0.005 per gallon ~ $225

Energy2,450 Kwh @ $0.08 per kWh ~ $200


Household water conservation

Outdoor Water Conservation

  • Outdoor use usually small in PA (< 10%)

  • High percentage is evaporated (consumptive use)

  • First target of drought restrictions

  • Examples

    • Rain barrels to collect roof water

    • Drip or soaker hoses for irrigation

    • Nighttime watering

    • No car washing, filling pools, etc.


Water resources planning act passed december 2002

Water Resources Planning Act(Passed December 2002)

  • Objectives

    • Estimate how much water we have

    • Determine how much we use

    • Estimate how much we will need

  • Creates a State Water Plan

  • Registration of all large water users

    • Those using >10,000 gallons per day

  • Water conservation education and assistance

  • Identification of critical water resources planning areas

  • Precursor to water resources based planning?


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