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Household Water Conservation. Where is Water Used in PA?. Water Use (million gallons per day). Thermoelectric (not shown) = 5,930. Shifting Population Changes Local Water Use. ~20,000 new wells each year. Wells Drilled 1960-1994. Household Water Use in PA. 1900 5 million residents

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Household Water

Conservation


Where is water used in pa
Where is Water Used in PA?

Water Use (million gallons per day)

Thermoelectric (not shown) = 5,930


Shifting population changes local water use
Shifting Population Changes Local Water Use

~20,000 new wells each year

Wells Drilled 1960-1994


Household water use in pa
Household Water Use in PA

  • 1900

    • 5 million residents

    • 5 gallons per person per day

  • 1995

    • 12 million residents

    • 62 gallons per person per day


Where is water used in the home 69 3 gallons per person per day
Where is Water Used in the Home(69.3 gallons per person per day)


Why conserve water
Why Conserve Water?

  • Save money !!

    • Energy savings (from heating water)

    • Water savings (for those that pay for water)

  • Conserve your supply for later use

  • Rebates

    • Some utilities offer incentives for conservation

  • Reduce the load to your septic or sewer system

  • Make environmentally conscious decisions when possible


Achieving water conservation
Achieving Water Conservation

  • Changes in habits

    • Little or no cost

    • Quick effect

    • Usually temporary

  • Water-saving appliances, fixtures

    • Can be expensive

    • Most are easily installed

    • Very effective

    • Permanent


Changes in Habits

  • Often touted during droughts

  • Examples

    • Shorter showers

    • Wait for full laundry loads

    • Less frequent toilet flushing

    • Reduce outdoor watering

    • No car washing


Toilets
Toilets

  • Largest user of water in most homes

  • Average use = 5.1 flushes per person per day

  • Conventional = 4 to 5 gallons per flush (gpf)

  • New toilets = 1.6 gpf

  • 1.6 gpf toilets have been required since 1994


Clothes washers
Clothes Washers

  • Average use = 2.6 loads per week per person

  • Conventional = 45 to 51 gallons per load (gpl)

  • Front-loading = 27 gpl

  • Disadvantages

    • More expensive initially

    • Bending to get clothes

    • Longer wash time

  • Advantages

    • Significant energy savings

    • Less detergent

    • Less drying needed

    • Larger load capacity

    • Cleaner clothes

    • Less wear and tear on clothes


Dish washer
Dish Washer

  • 50% of homes have one

  • Similar water use to hand-washing

  • Average use = about 1 load per week per person

  • Conventional = about 11 gallons per load

  • Water efficient = 4 to 7 gpl


Other water saving toilets
Other Water-Saving Toilets

Composting toilet and composter

  • Mostly commercial or recreational uses

  • Air-assisted

    • Utilizes air compressor

    • About 0.5 gallons per flush

    • Noisy

  • Composting

    • No water use

    • Requires careful maintenance

    • Best for low-use situations

Air-assisted


Faucets
Faucets

  • Average use = 4 minutes per day per person

  • Conventional = 3 to 6 gallons per minute

  • Low-volume = 1.5 gallons per minute

  • (as low as 0.5 gpm for bathroom)

  • Very inexpensive

  • 2.5 gpm faucets required since 1994


Showerheads
Showerheads

  • Average use = 8 minutes per day per person

  • Conventional = 3 to 6 gallons per minute

  • Low-volume = 2 to 2.5 gallons per minute

  • Some have manual shut-off for extra savings

  • Very inexpensive

  • Savings depend on habits also

  • 2.5 gpm showerhead required since 1994


Effect of water conservation
Effect of Water Conservation

Water Use (gallons per day)

Normal use = 68 gallons per day per person

Conservation use = 38 gallons per day per person


Estimated annual water and energy savings family of four
Estimated Annual Water and Energy Savings(family of four)

Water Savings Energy Savings

Appliance (gallons) (kilowatt hours)

Low-flush toilet 18,000 0

Low-volume showerhead 4,000 500

Low-volume faucet 9,000 500

Front-loading washer 13,000 1,300

Water-efficient dishwasher 600 150

Total 44,600 2,450

Annual Dollar Savings

Water 44,600 gallons @ $0.005 per gallon ~ $225

Energy 2,450 Kwh @ $0.08 per kWh ~ $200


Outdoor Water Conservation

  • Outdoor use usually small in PA (< 10%)

  • High percentage is evaporated (consumptive use)

  • First target of drought restrictions

  • Examples

    • Rain barrels to collect roof water

    • Drip or soaker hoses for irrigation

    • Nighttime watering

    • No car washing, filling pools, etc.


Water resources planning act passed december 2002
Water Resources Planning Act(Passed December 2002)

  • Objectives

    • Estimate how much water we have

    • Determine how much we use

    • Estimate how much we will need

  • Creates a State Water Plan

  • Registration of all large water users

    • Those using >10,000 gallons per day

  • Water conservation education and assistance

  • Identification of critical water resources planning areas

  • Precursor to water resources based planning?


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