Lecture Overview. Aggression DefinedExploring Theories of Aggression: An analysis of crime statisticsIndividual Difference FactorsPreventing Aggression. Aggression. Aggressive Action Intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or psychological painHostile AggressionAn act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting painInstrumental AggressionAggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain.
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1. Social Psychology of Aggression
2. Lecture Overview Aggression Defined
Exploring Theories of Aggression: An analysis of crime statistics
Individual Difference Factors
3. Aggression Aggressive Action
Intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or psychological pain
An act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain
Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain
7. Biological Theories of Aggression Psychoanalytic View
Freud’s Thanos- Death Wish
Ethological View: Aggression as Internal Energy (Lorenz, 1974)
Organism continually builds up aggressive energy. Whether energy leads to aggression depends on:
amount of energy built up
strength of external stimuli that elicits aggressive response
Inhibitions against killing within own species never developed in humans
8. Biological Theories of Aggression Developmental course of aggression may be different for girls compared to boys (Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1998).
Greater proportion of girls in adolescence become aggressive without a prior history of aggressive behavior
Girls’ involvement in serious violence peaks at an earlier age compared to boys.
9. Biological Theories of Aggression
10. Biological Theories of Aggression Causes of Gender Differences:
Testosterone linked to aggression in other animal species.
Cross-sectional studies fail to find support for testosterone-aggression link in humans (Archer, 1991)
Longitudinal study failed to find covariation between testosterone and aggression in humans.
Low status men more likely to engage in physical confrontations (Archer et al. 1995)
Social Role Model
Gender differences accounted for by differences in socialization
11. Gender and Aggression
14. Frustration Aggression Theory Frustration always leads to aggression and aggression is always caused by frustration
Example of evidence against:
Bomber pilots report feeling excited and elated while in flight and during attacks
Frustration is an unpleasant experience, and perhaps it may provoke aggression because of this fact (Berkowitz). It is not the only cause of aggression, however.
17. Does the finger pull the trigger or does the trigger pull the finger? Weapons Effect (Berkowitz & LePage, 1967)
Exposing subjects to aggressive cues increases aggression
19. Displaced Aggression Theory Displaced aggression
Aggression against someone other than the source of provocation when a person is unwilling or unable to aggress against the source of provocation
20. Displaced Aggression Theory Penderson et al. (2000):
Participants solved anagrams under conditions designed to either provoke or not provoke aggression.
Whether or not aggression triggered was also manipulated.
21. Discomfort and Aggression (Carlsmith & Anderson, 1979)
22. Discomfort and Aggression Negative-Affect Escape model
Heat increases aggression but only up to a point
Violent offenses increase linearly at night and curvilinearly during the day (Rotton & Cohn)
24. Effects of Culture on Aggression Culture of Honor (Nisbett)
Persons living in the south and in the west more likely to accept interpersonal violence as a means of protecting honor
25. Social Learning Theory Does media violence lead to aggression?
Phillips (1983, 1986)- Boxing matches and homicide
26. Social Learning Theory Pornography:
Ss angered by female confederate
IV: Film type (rape, consent, nonerotic violence)
DV: Level of shock administered
IV: Rape or Consent Film
DV: Content of Sexual Fantasies
27. Sexual Arousal and Aggression Relationship, however, depends on degree of sexual arousal
28. Excitation Transfer Theory (Zillman, 1983, 1988)
29. Individual Differences Genetic Explanations:
Old Explanations: Atavism
New Explanations: Bad Brains?
Aggressive Personalities and Attribution Styles
31. Bad Brains?
32. Bad Brains?
33. Biological Theories of Aggression Behavioral Genetics View
Genetically related individuals more similar in their aggressive tendencies compared to those who are not genetically related
Aggression in Adopted Children:
Both Adopted and Bio Parents > Bio Parents Only > Adopted Parents Only > Neither Adopted or Bio Parents
50% of variation in aggressive behavior accounted for by shared genetic makeup.
34. Aggressive Personalities and Attribution Styles Type A personalities more likely to engage in hostile aggression compared to Type B’s (no differences in instrumental aggression)
Attributions made for others actions in ambiguous circumstances also affects aggressive responses
Hostile Attribution Bias
Tendency to perceive hostile intensions or motives in others actions when these actions are ambiguous
35. Preventing Aggression Punishment
Exposure to nonagressive models
Social skills training
Humor, mild sexual arousal, empathy toward victim