Social psychology
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Social Psychology. Basic premise: Who we are is determined by our social interactions --Past: our social development --Present: social influence We’ll start with an area of overlap between cognition and social influence; attitudes, and the drive toward attitude consistency.

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Social Psychology

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Social psychology

Social Psychology

  • Basic premise: Who we are is determined by our social interactions

    • --Past: our social development

    • --Present: social influence

      We’ll start with an area of overlap between cognition and social influence; attitudes, and the drive toward attitude consistency


Strong generalization about attitudes

Strong Generalization About Attitudes

We like to maintain consistancy of attitudes:

  • selective exposure

  • selective interpretation

  • selective memory


Stronger theories of attitude consistency

Stronger Theories of Attitude Consistency

  • Balance Theory (Heider)

  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger)

  • Self Perception Theory (Bem)


Cognitive dissonance theory

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

  • Leon Festinger: Two cognitions that are in conflict or dissonant (one implies the opposite of the other) result in pressure to change one or both to bring them into consonance

  • In practice, the two are an attitude and a behavior and the attitude changes


Three types of dissonance situations or experiments

Three types of Dissonance Situations or Experiments

  • Justification of effort (Aronson & Mills)

  • Inadequate external justification

    --when prophecy fails (Ms. Keech)

    --counterattitudinal advocacy (Yale)

  • Consequences of a decision (Brehm)


Social psychology

Knox & Inkster betting study (consequences of making a decision)


Self perception theory bem

Self Perception Theory- Bem

  • The theory and its relation to cog. diss.

  • Experimental evidence (Bem, Valins)

  • Can we know ourselves given all this?

  • (Back to Missouri!)


Emotion and self perception

Emotion and Self-Perception

  • Emotions involve both bodily activation (brain-endocrine) and precipitating stimuli

  • Naïve view: perception of p-stimuli causes us to feel a certain way-->activates body

  • James-Lange view: p-stim. causes physiological arousal--> perceived emotion

  • Cognitive theory: p-stim. + physiol. arousal --> perceived emotional state


Social influence continued some dangerous findings

Social Influence (continued): some dangerous findings

Bystandar Apathy

Conformity

Obedience


Bystander apathy intervention

Bystander Apathy & Intervention

  • Surprising work of Darley & Latane on the effect of the no. of bystanders


Mechanisms that produce bystander apathy effects

Mechanisms That Produce Bystander Apathy Effects

  • moral diffusion

  • lack of clarity--ambiguity of interp. and of action. airport/subway crutch--fall 83 vs. 41 % helped, and they were people more familiar with the surround.

    3. costs of intervention. sometimes they are raised bythe presence of others (surveillance)

    4. rules for behaving: don't stare, unless you know what to do/day, keep your mouth shut etc.

    5) mood: Isen dime in coin slot mailing letter 10-->90 %


Solomon asch conformity

Solomon Asch: Conformity

  • Conformity: Good or bad?

  • Major findings: 1/3 & 2/3 conform!

  • What it takes to resist!

  • Conclusion


Stanley milgram obedience

Stanley Milgram: Obedience

  • Description of Experiment

  • Basic findings 2/3

  • Field theory explanation (exper. vs. victim force fields)


Underlying explanation

Underlying Explanation

  • Foot in the door

  • Other is responsible (diffusion of resp.)

  • Aloneness- lack of social support

  • Ambiguity about situation/what to do!!!

  • Other directedness (Reisman)


Schein s pow work

Schein’s POW Work

  • Level of compliance and how it was obtained

  • The power of social isolation

  • Who resisted?

  • Solution: inner codes vs. external or situational control

  • Conclusion: balance?……


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