Multifactorial Traits. Chapter Seven. Multifactorial. Not all diseases are Mendelian Multifactorial = many factors In Genetics: Multifactorial = both environment and genetics (usually more than one gene ) Polygenic = more than one gene
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rational fear vs. anxiety disorders
Percent Genetic Control
Percent Environmental Control
Autistic or normal?
“speaking ability is stuck at 2 years of age”
Rather than genes people often talk about:
Remember – More than one gene!
therefore – more than one QTL too
# of relatives that share the trait
# expected to share if trait was 100% genetic
40 of 100 sib pairs share trait
What do you think is wrong, or lacking, with H2 estimate from relative pairs?
Twins usually share bedroom
Siblings raised in same house, unlike cousins
Autism: 90% MZ vs. 2% DZ
Homosexuality: 52% MZ vs. 20% DZ
Depression: 46% MZ vs. 9% DZ
More shared genetics usually correlates to more shared environment too
Tuberculosis was found more often in MZ twins than DZ twins
Differs based on ethnic background:
Also depending on whether relative has trait:
- Marker and phenotype are correlated
- Animal can be manipulated to show phenotype
- Compare differences in genetics, matched to differences in phenotypes
- Are certain alleles correlated with phenotype?
“Linkage Disequilibrium” – alleles are inherited together (rather than genes)
Association studies are now often done in:
This is assuming
# Individuals Needed
# Genes Causing Trait
QTL = regions associated with phenotype:
Empiric Risk – known incidence of trait in particular population
Heritability – estimate of percentage of trait that is caused by genetics
Correlation Coefficient – proportion of genes two relatives share
Concordance – Percentage of twin pairs that both show phenotype