objectives. Briefly talk about the different types of societies Watch a short film on the evolution of technology and its influence on changes in society (illustrate point 1)
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“I studied the process of change that results from a society’s gaining new information, particularly Technology and came with a classification of 5 general types of societies through history”
Technology is alive! What does technology want? How has technology influenced human development?
Based on kinship (family bonds). Family obtains food, distributes this and secure each other
Small bands of a few dozen people living at some distance from each other. NOMADIC societies!
Rarely used their weapons (the spear, the bow, knife, arrow) to engage in war
Most activities are common to everyone and centre on seeking food, some specialization corresponds to age and sex
Social organization is simple and egalitarian
Few formal leaders (often a shaman). Believed in different spirits inhabiting the world
The domestication of plants and animals greatly increased food production enabling societies to support hundreds of people
Pastoralists remain nomads, leading their herds to fresh grazing lands/Horticulturalists formed settlements, moving on only when they depleted the soil
Domesticating plants and animals generates material surplus. Trade emerged between settlements.
Material surplus frees some people from the job of securing food, that other kind of professions emerged. E.g. crafts, priests, engage in trade, cut hair etc.
Social inequalities increased. Rich and poor (even slavery). Warfare.
Religions emerged, based on the worship of God, the creator. God is directly related to well-being of the world (Christianity, Islam and Judaism)
The technology of large scale farming using ploughs harnessed to animals or more sources of energy
Technological innovations of that period: irrigation, writing, numbers and explanding use of metals
Large food supplies, large food surpluses.
Population and areas of settlements expands (e.g. Roman Empire, Inca and Mayan Civilizations)
Trade, growth of cities, dramatic social inequalities
Increasing production meant greater specialization: the rise of occupations
Technology that empowers sophisticated machinery with advanced sources of energy
Dawns with the Industrial revolution, approximately in 1750
Power supplies, electricity, steam, revolution in transportation and communication
Urbanization: emerging of cities
Social inequalities increased. Poverty and Richness .
Diminishing traditions: family and religion. Literacy emerges
How do the societies of the past and present differ from each other?
How and why does a society change? What forces divide a society? hold it together? Are societies getting better or worse?
In a society so rich, how could so many be so poor? And how can we change this situation?
There are two groups in conflict:
Capitalists people who onw factories and other productive enterprises
Proletariats: people who provide labour necessary to operate the productive enterprises of the capitalists
To conflict between capitalists and proletariats has its roots on the ‘process of production’ itself:
low wages, maximum profit
Social conflict: struggle between different segments of society over valued resources:
Capitalists vs. proletariats
Social change will come if we all abandon the capitalist system.
Transform what he calls False consciousness into
Social inequalities increased during history: agrarian societies were much equal.
Alienation keeps inequalities in place and prevent social change: alienation from the act of working, from the products of work, from the workers, from human potentials
Capitalism is grounded in other social institutions: religion, political order and morality
Capitalism is the natural order! I don’t have any talents, I deserve to be poor and remain poor
False consciousness: explanations of social problems grounded in the shortcomings of individuals rather than the flaws of society itself
I am captured in a system. Hey, I don’t deserve this and hey, I’m not alone, I’m in the majority
Marx idealized socialism as the opposite of capitalism! “a more equal society”, according to Marx
Class consciousness: the recognition by workers of their unity as a class in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to capitalism itself
Ideas, especially beliefs and values have transforming power. Society is the product (not just of new technology and capitalism) of a new way of thinking.
Growing out of changes in religious belief, the modern world can be characterized as an increasingly rational world
Sentiments and believes passed from generation to generation.
Deliberate, matter of fact calculation of the most efficient ways to accomplish a goal.
Bureaucracy became the symbol of rationalization and modernization. But it has a dehumanizing effect
“To love society is to love something beyond us and something in ourselves”
“Patterns of human behaviour form established structures, these are social facts that have an objective reality beyond the lives and perceptions of particular individuals”
“Cultural norms, values, religious believes all endure social facts. Society is larger than individual lives: it shapes individual lives”
Computer-linked technology that supports an information based society (term coined by David Bell )
Information society, network society,
Liquid society: living in times of uncertainties
Globalization, unequal world
Liquid society, a new form of society that is much more fluid than previous modern and traditional ones. Everything changes, we live in times of uncertainties, everything flows. Mobility is the key
A new form of society dependent upon new information technologies and networking
Reflect upon the following questiosn: