Engl 354 english for public relations week 3
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ENGL 354 English for Public Relations Week 3. Lecturer: Kathryn Davies. 1. Review Context 2. Personal Image Building: From Personal to Professional Image, Celebrity PR 2.1 Your communications quotient 2.2 Personality profiles 2.3 What is a brand? 2.4 Personal Branding 4 P’s of Marketing

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ENGL 354 English for Public Relations Week 3

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Engl 354 english for public relations week 3

ENGL 354English for Public RelationsWeek 3

Lecturer: Kathryn Davies


Today s topics

1. Review Context

2. Personal Image Building: From Personal to Professional Image, Celebrity PR

2.1 Your communications quotient

2.2 Personality profiles

2.3 What is a brand?

2.4 Personal Branding

4 P’s of Marketing

Areas from which you build image

2.5 Celebrity and Celebrity PR

3. Press Releases Part 1

3.1 Background, Introduction

3.2 Stylistic Characteristics

Short sentences

Simple language

Titles

Attribution of Quotes

Writing objectively

Neural

Today’s Topics


Presentation overview

Presentation Overview

  • For Weeks 5 & 6 (next week!)

  • Work in groups of 3-4

  • Choose a someone (celebrity, someone everyone knows) and analyze them based on:

    • Perloff’s Credibility Theory

    • The 3 C’s of an Effective Communicator

    • Personal brand, image

  • Remember, communicators don’t live in a vacuum, so be sure to include content on the context (message and audience).

  • Everyone should speak, and keep in mind good presentation skills.

  • Relax - don’t worry too much about this! 


Review context

Review Context

Lasswell (1948)

“Who (1) says What (2) in which channel (3) to Whom (4), with What effect (5).”

  • WHO: Credibility Model Perloff (1993)

  • Expertise

  • Trustworthiness

  • Similarity

    • Need to be like the audience  homophily

    • Need to be dissimilar if experience or expertise is needed  heterophily

  • Physical attractiveness


Three c s of an effective communicator smith 2011

Three C’s of an Effective Communicator(Smith, 2011)

  • Credibility:

  • Expertise

  • Status

  • Competence

  • Honesty

Charisma:

  • Familiarity

  • Likeability

  • Similarity

  • Attractiveness

Control:

  • Power

  • Authority

  • Scrutiny


2 your inner brand who you are

“The most powerful voice you have, no one else can hear. It is a voice shaping your destiny, ability to cope with triumph or disaster… This voice ultimately determines your success as a communicator or your communications.

It is the voice within your head.”

(Green, 2006: 3)

2. Your inner brand – Who you are


2 1 your communications quotient green 2006

2.1 Your Communications QuotientGreen, 2006

  • Your way of thinking and therefore way of communicating is determined by different quotients in:

    • Intelligence

    • Emotion

    • Adversity

    • Vision

  • Your “brand” of thinking  shaped by how you use these different quotients.


Communications quotient

VQ

IQ

EQ

AQ

Communications Quotient

A theory that communication is a behaviour-based skill that can be measured and trained.

  • Your CQ is your ability to use your various quotients to devise and deliver communications for the task at hand.

    An outstand PR communicator is marked by being flexible and being able to secure a balance between different resources


Intelligence quotient iq

Sheldon: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AEIn3T6nDAo 3:05 – 4:10

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

Facts ARE powerful tools for persuasion.

  • Your ability to:

    • Analyze

    • Rationalize

    • Retain knowledge

  • For PR this means gathering information to help prepare your case (e.g. keeping up to date with the markets, government policy, etc.)

  • IQ skills can help to:

    • Define challenges; establish objectives;

    • Think broadly and strategically;

    • Evaluate actions based on their potential impact;

    • Identify potential outcomes.

    • You do need to base campaigns on sound intelligence. But how important is this for an effective communicator?

      • Think about a doctor with bad bedside manner.

      • Effective communicators need to go beyond facts and figures.


Emotional quotient eq

Emotional Quotient (EQ)

  • Perceptions are often based on emotions rather than facts!

  • Your ability to:

    • Sense,

    • Understand,

    • Apply the power and acumen of emotions as a source of human energy, information, trust, creativity and influences.

  • In community and voluntary sectors it is vital to fully emphasize with the target audiences/communities to communicate effectively.

  • Reading people’s emotions and body language can help adapt your message to the needs/feelings of your audience.

     Doctor with a high EQ and IQ can contribute empathy to boost a patients’ emotional state to help them deal with their condition.

acumen (n): The ability to make good judgments and quick decisions, typically in a particular domain: "business acumen".


Vision quotient

Vision Quotient

  • Visions:

    • A destination on your horizon.

    • An imagined goal.

  • Can apply to profound issues or specific tasks.  Bigger than you!

  • Outstanding PR communicators have a vision of positive outcome.

  • Steps for developing vision, SMARTA:

    • Specific

    • Measurable

    • Achievable

    • Realistic

    • Time-based

    • Awesome

Woody Allen, “A key part of success is just showing up.”


Adversity quotient aq

Adversity Quotient (AQ)

  • You will always run into walls, barriers, or obstacles.

  • AQ is not giving in, your will to succeed, the ability to bounce back.

  • Everyone has setbacks.

  • Key resources for your adversity state are:

    • Accountability – you’re 100% responsible.

    • Meaning

    • Persistence

    • Flexibility


Communications quotient1

Communications Quotient

  • High communications quotient  effectively using elements of the four Q’s.

  • Have to get the right balance!

  • By recognizing that your communications are made up of an interplay between the different quotients, you can gain an intrapersonal insight into your own thinking.


2 2 personality profiles

2.2 Personality Profiles

  • The more you can suit your communications to the preference of your target  the more effective.

  • Two important things to keep in mind when selling your message:

    Your audience:

    • Personality profile

    • Preferred thinking style

  • Four symbols (Green, 2001)


Personality profiles

Personality Profiles

  • Triangle

    • A sense of direction, ambitious, clear targets in life, single-minded dedication, natural leaders, workaholics, sacrificing family and friends to achieve goals.

  • Square

    • Logical, prefer facts and figures, dislike hunches and distrust intuition, assessing challenging situations objectively rather than emotionally.

  • Squiggle

    • Off-beat view of life, boundless energy, involved in a wide range of activities, hate routine.

  • Circle

    • Harmonious, skilled at dealing with people, with warmth and understanding, strong empathic skills, sensitive to others’ needs, intuitive.


2 3 what is a brand

2.3 What is a brand?

  • A ‘brand’ is the sum of:

    • Emotions, thoughts, images, history, possibilities, and gossip

    • That exist in a marketplace, about a certain,

    • Group, company, product, service, idea or even person.

  • In other words:

    Given entity/thing + all communications + associations from context = brand.


Brand

Brand

  • Brands are made up of: icons, values, information.

    (Similar to the structure of language!)

  • As a professional, you are a brand unto yourself.

  • Outstanding communicator  great manager of their own personal brand and the brands they are seeking to communicate.


Personal brand

Personal Brand

  • Personal brand

    • A personal identity that stimulates precise, meaningful perceptions in audience about the values, qualities that a person stands for.

    • A public projection of certain aspects of a person.

  • Your personal brand can be developed effectively by using traditional marketing techniques.

  • 4Ps of marketing


4 p s of marketing

Product

Determine who you are.

Build a personal brand around your core strengths, skills and experience.

Be consistent and recognizable.

Promotion

Communicate your brand.

Determine where members of your target audience get their information and make sure your messages are present on these channels.

Price

The value you add to an organisation.

Your bottom line.

Your expertise comes with a price tag in the form of a salary.

Place

Select a sphere of influence.

Research who needs your services.

4 P’s of Marketing


Areas where you build your image

Areas where you build your image

These are the four areas that have a huge impact on your image and how you present yourself professionally:

  • Written and spoken interactions,

  • Appearance,

  • Networking,

  • Interpersonal interaction.


2 5 celebrity and public relations

2.5 Celebrity and Public Relations

  • Why is the cult of celebrity so appealing to mass consumers?

  • People from the influential spheres of politics, religion, art and science are often cited as being pioneers of modern PR. (Nessmann 2008)

  • Recall one or two famous historical figures. Why are they famous? What are their methods?


The rise of celebrity

The Rise of Celebrity

Paris Hilton –

Now why is she famous again?

  • 1850

  • 1920s popular magazine turned the attention to entertainment and sport

  • ‘Famous for being famous’ phenomenon

  • Achieving great celebrity requires the technique of frequently reinventing yourself and presenting different personas for public consumption

  • A global cultural industry


Celebrities classified rojek 2001

Celebrities Classified (Rojek 2001)

  • Ascribed celebrity

    • A status through inheritance

  • Achieved celebrity

    • A status achieved by being exceptional in fields

  • Attributed celebrity

    • Repeated exposure

  • Celetoid

    • Celebrities who command media attention because of scandals, reality TV shows.

  • Celeactors

    • Fictional characters who achieve media attention and become cultural reference points.

       Think about a celebrity that fits each classification.


Elements of the celebrity or personality market

Elements of the Celebrity orPersonality Market


How can pr help celebrities

How can PR help celebrities?

  • Offer personal coaching service

  • Prepare for public appearances and press conferences, image and brand creation, style consultation

    Example:

  • Margret Thatcher

    • PR specialist Tim Bell

    • Interview techniques

    • Voice Pitch

    • Dress to broaden her appeal


How can celebrities help pr

How can celebrities help PR?

  • Celebrity endorsement as a persuasive technique

  • The inherent brand personality of the celebrity is matched by the marketer to the product to differentiate one brand from another.

  • Using celebrities to endorse products can come with risks. And celebrities must maintain a good image to continue receiving endorsement work.

Carl Pistorius – charged with murdering girlfriend in South Africa.

Bolt (Olympic runner) & Branson (entrepreneur)


When celebrities fall it comes at a price sometimes millions

When celebrities fall…it comes at a price.Sometimes millions…

Lance Armstrong, pro-cyclist, 7x Tour de France winner, Livestrong Foundation

Tiger Woods, pro-golfer


Communications in pr

Communications in PR

Press Release – Part 1


3 1 press release background

3.1 Press Release - Background

  • Graduation announcement in 1758 by King’s College (now Columbia University)

  • Press releases are used in all kinds of situations

    • Make announcement

    • Respond to critics

    • Report progress

    • Give information to reporters

    • Provide facts to radio and TV journalists.

    • Attract photographers to scheduled events.

  • Basis for effective writing for organizational newsletters, websites and internal newspaper


News style writing

News Style Writing

  • A press release is a communication format commonly used by organizations to provide information to the news media. It is a piece of news-based writing that has the look and feel of a news story written by journalist (Smith, 2008: 116).

  • No matter what field or area you work in, you’re expected to have good news style writing skills.

  • A review of some conventions of news-style writing from journalism …


Why are there so many poor releases

Why are there so many poor releases?

  • Writers forget the needs of their customer (i.e. the media).

  • Untrained people.

  • Different ideas on what makes a good press releases (e.g. organizational policy)

  • Every release begins in the same way regardless of interest: Memorial Hospital of East Carbon Street in Southtown announces that …

  • Or conclude with two long paragraphs of organizational identification.


Objectives

Objectives

Learn how to:

  • Write in appropriate style.

  • Use the appropriate format.

  • Understand and apply the basics of press release writing.

  • To write different kinds of leads and news briefs.

  • To write press releases for local media.

  • To demonstrate competence in writing press releases for various purposes.


3 2 stylistic characteristics short sentences

3.2 Stylistic CharacteristicsShort Sentences

  • Readability studies suggest using words averaging 1.5 syllables.

  • Sentences should be brief with an average of 16 words.

  • Paragraphs should be short, generally 6 lines maximum.


Short sentences exercise

Short Sentences: Exercise

  • Rewrite the lengthy sentence in a shorter version that retains the same information as the original. Your revision probably will be longer than the original because it will include more than one sentence, but no individual sentence should be longer than 20 words

  • The Health Advocacy Network of Apple County (HANAC) is creating a county-wide community task force of professionals drawn from the areas of health care, social work, education, religion, government, law enforcement, and business to focus on the growing problem of elder neglect and elder abuse, which HANAC claims is increasing at an alarming 25 percent a year, with the first meeting of the task force scheduled for next Monday at 7 p.m. in the County Building on Macintosh Road.


Feedback

Feedback

  • The Health Advocacy Network of Apple County (HANAC) is creating a county-wide community task force. The task force will include professionals from health care, social work, education, religion, government, law enforcement, and business. The focus will be on the growing problem of elder neglect and elder abuse. Presently, HANAC claims this issue is increasing at an alarming 25 percent a year. The first meeting of the task force is scheduled for next Monday at 7 p.m. in the County Building on Macintosh Road.

  • The Health Advocacy Network of Apple County (HANAC) is creating a county-wide community task force of professionals drawn from the areas of health care, social work, education, religion, government, law enforcement, and business to focus on the growing problem of elder neglect and elder abuse, which HANAC claims is increasing at an alarming 25 percent a year, with the first meeting of the task force scheduled for next Monday at 7 p.m. in the County Building on Macintosh Road.


Simple language

Simple Language

  • Use basic word said rather than subjective alternatives.

  • Make careful use of objective varieties:

  • Avoid subjective superlatives (best, most useful, greatest).

  • Use great care with objective superlatives (biggest, first, unique, only).

  • Avoid hard-sell advertising-based terms.

  • Use simple tenses – not “will be selling”

  • Prefer future forms of verbs.

  • Prefer past perfect forms of verbs for past action of indeterminate timing.

  • Use past tense only with specific times, and only when the time is relevant.


Simple language exercise

Simple Language: Exercise

  • 1A. The plan will lead to 200 new jobs, promised the president.

  • 1B. The plan will lead to 200 new jobs, noted the president.

  • 1C. The plan will lead to 200 new jobs, said the president.

  • 2A. The company will market a revolutionary new carpet.

  • 2B. The company will market a carpet with many new features.

  • 2C. The company will market a totally new kind of carpet.

  • 3A. The captain said the ship usually is full.

  • 3B. The captain says the ship usually is full

  • 3C. The captain says the ship is full more often than not.


Titles

Titles

  • Identify people by occupations, job titles and functions.

    • Formal titles denote authority, professional activity or academic achievement, such as President, Queen, Bishop. (Precede the name capitalized without commas):

      • A. President Martin Adamson will visit next Tuesday.

      • B. Martin Adamson the president will visit next Tuesday.

      • C. President Martin Adamson, will visit next Tuesday.

    • Long functional and occupational titles may precede the name with no commas and without capitalization:

      • A. The general manager Heidi Copeland will visit next Tuesday.

      • B. The general manager, Heidi Copeland, will visit next Tuesday.

      • C. The general manager Heidi Copeland, will visit next Tuesday.


Attribution of quotes

Attribution of Quotes

  • A full sentence quote should begin as a new paragraph.

  • Attribution should follow a brief full-sentence quote.

  • Attribution may interrupt a longer full-sentence.

  • Attribution generally comes before partial quotes.

  • Paraphrases are appropriate substitutes for unimpressive or cumbersome quotes.

  • Attribution should be to people, not to organizations.


Attribution of quotes exercise

Attribution of Quotes: Exercise

  • A. “We expect to see an increase in the number of applicants over the next six months,’ said the admissions director.

  • B. The admissions director said: “We expect to see an increase in the number of applicants over the next six months.”

  • C. “We expect to see,” the admissions director said, “an increase in the number of applicants over the next six months.”

  • A. Said the federation director: “When you consider the source of this funding and its exceptionally high standards – standards that can be met with only the greatest of difficulty by many organizations – we are especially pleased and honored to have been chosen to receive this prestigious award.”

  • B. “When you consider,” said the federation director, “the source of this funding and its exceptionally high standards – standards that can be met with only the greatest of difficulty by many organizations – we are especially pleased and honored to have been chosen to receive this prestigious award.”

  • C. The director said she is especially pleased because the federation met the high standards of the foundation.


Writing objectively

Writing Objectively

Important to keep in mind:

  • Readers are obtaining facts, not opinion, speculation or editorial comments.

  • Opinions have to be presented with attribution.

    • A. Some scientists say that the disappearance of the dinosaur was caused by a meteor hitting the earth.

    • B. Scientists say that the disappearance of the dinosaur probably was caused by a meteor hitting the earth.

    • C. The dinosaur disappeared because a meteor hit the earth.

    • A. Critics say Mary’s musical repertoire ranges from jazz to classical.

    • B. Mary’s musical repertoire ranges from jazz to classical.

    • C. An outstanding musician, Mary has an amazingly broad repertoire, which easily ranges from jazz to classical.


Neutral

Neutral

  • Direct to a particular public.

  • Cannot be writing personally to readers.

  • Avoid telling readers what to do.

  • Avoid you and your statements.

  • Give information, not directions.

    • A. If you are interested in attending the concert, you may obtain tickets by calling the box office at 1234567.

    • B. Tickets are available through the box office at 1234567.

    • C. Call the box office at 1234567 for tickets.

    • A. Interested students should register for workshop before Jan 15.

    • B. The registration deadline is Jan 15.

    • C. You can register for the workshop before Jan 15.


That s all for now

That’s all for now…

See you next week and have fun preparing your presentations!


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