Chapter 3: Behavioral Genetics 遺傳行為學. 3.1 Introduction: Principles of Behavioral Genetics and the Evolution of Behavior 3.2 The Nature versus Nurture Debate 3.3 Evolution and Behavior 3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox 3.5 Summary .
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A. m. ligustica
A. m. carnica
Both natural and artificial selection have produced many morphological varieties of the pigeon.
Pigeon breeders have selected for behavioral varieties of pigeons, including (A) tumbler () pigeons, and (B) homing pigeons.
If hunting in larger groups (up to some maximum group size) provides more food per dog than hunting in smaller groups (or alone), natural selection can favor group hunting.
When population size equals 100, the number of wild dogs that hunt in groups will increase in frequency, and they will eventually make up 100 percent of the population. No mutation and no migration.
Survival of the fittest
Some of differences in the mating behavior of (A) satellite males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. The ss is for independent males.
Dissecting behavioral variation
3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox: Ecotype 1400016000DNAEcotype
:125 - 555 km2127 km2
() (basal ganglia basal nuclei)
huntingtin ( Htt) Htt HD Htt (glutamine) ( mHtt)
[ 7- 1( a)] 9 (syrinx) ?!2 X 1 X 1 Y Y (trogen) (: )
It is hard to pinpoint the precise beginnings of the study of animal behavior
Its roots can be traced back to the ancient Greek philosophers ()
summarized in 1855 by Herbert Spencer in Principles of Psychology ()
Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
There is a continuity in mental states between lower and higher animals ()
Based on a picture of evolution similar to Aristotles scala naturae, the great chain of being
A linear, continuous evolution of species
Progression from sponges, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, nonhuman animals then humans
The animal mind and the human mind were simply points on a continuum
1. Variation exists among individuals, and some of this variation is inherited
2. Most offspring do not survive to reproduce
3. Some individuals survive and produce more offspring, as a consequence of inherited characteristics
Charles Darwins The Origin of Species (1859) provided a framework for developing the field of animal behavior:
4. Natural selection: the differential survival and reproduction of individuals resulting from genetically-based variation in their behavior, morphology, physiology, etc.
5. Evolutionary change occurs as the heritable traits of individuals that survive and reproduce are spread through the population
- Traits of less successful individuals are lost
Ayo ( 2010)
Jacques Loeb (1918): all patterns of behavior were simply forced movements or tropisms ()
Physiochemical reactions toward or away from stimuli
Herbert Spencer Jennings wrote Behavior of the Lower Organisms (1906)
Disagreed with Loeb
Emphasized the variability and modifiability of behavior
Differences in opinion led to two major disciplines:
Ethology: centered in Europe
Focused on the evolution and function of behavior
Comparative psychology: centered in the United States
Focused on the mechanism and development of behavior
They asked different questions, and studied different types of behavior and organisms
Ethologists studied innate behavior in birds, fish, and insects
Comparative psychologists emphasized learned behavior in mammals such as the Norway rat
Describing the normal function of behavior
Ethologists observed the animal in its natural habitator in environments designed to simulate that habitat
Comparative psychologists believed that learning was best studied in the nurturelaboratory where variables could be controlled
Ethologists were interested in species differences
Comparative psychologists searched for general laws of behavior.
Its approach: evolutionary, comparative, descriptive, field oriented
Asks Why is that animal doing that?
Founded by Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and Karl von Frisch
European zoologists who shared the Nobel Prize in 1973
Concentrated on the evolution of behavior
Focused on inherited behavior
Emphasized phylogeny (the evolutionary history of a species)
Ayo ( 2010)
Lorenz: to know why an organism looks and acts as it does, one must resort to the comparative method
Comparative anatomists do this in examining morphology
For example, to understand why male flies of the species Hilara sartor spins an elaborate silken balloon() to present to a female before mating
It is compared to other fly species in the family Empididae ()
Ayo ( 2010)