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Chapter 3: Behavioral Genetics 遺傳行為學. 3.1 Introduction: Principles of Behavioral Genetics and the Evolution of Behavior  3.2 The Nature versus Nurture Debate  3.3 Evolution and Behavior  3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  3.5 Summary .

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Chapter 3: Behavioral Genetics 遺傳行為學

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Chapter 3: Behavioral Genetics

  • 3.1Introduction: Principles of Behavioral Genetics and the Evolution of Behavior

  • 3.2The Nature versus Nurture Debate

  • 3.3Evolution and Behavior

  • 3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox

  • 3.5 Summary


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The Nature versus Nurture Debate


3.1Introduction: Killer Bees and the Evolution of Behavior

A. m. ligustica

A. m. carnica


Both natural and artificial selection have produced many morphological varieties of the pigeon.


Pigeon breeders have selected for behavioral varieties of pigeons, including (A) tumbler () pigeons, and (B) homing pigeons.


If hunting in larger groups (up to some maximum group size) provides more food per dog than hunting in smaller groups (or alone), natural selection can favor group hunting.


When population size equals 100, the number of wild dogs that hunt in groups will increase in frequency, and they will eventually make up 100 percent of the population. No mutation and no migration.


Survival of the fittest


3.3Evolution and Behavior


Behavioral genetics

  • Using Mendels laws of genetics to predict the distribution of behavioral phenotypes

  • Mapping genes for behavioral traits

  • Using other measures of heritability to determine what percentage of the variation in a behavioral trait is genetic and what percentage is environmental.



Some of differences in the mating behavior of (A) satellite males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. The ss is for independent males.


Polygenic traits

  • Quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

  • Fear/fearlessness in mice (Flint, et al., 1995)

  • mice open-field behavior (fear)

  • the more fearfull mice, DNA

  • fearsix different chromosomes (1,4,12,15,1718)

  • fear chromosomes (1,12,15)


Dissecting behavioral variation

  • Parent-offspring regression

  • Breeding colony size in parents and offspring

  • Cross-fostering experiment

  • Aerodramus

  • 100

  • 1500-55006


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4Cladogram



3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox: Ecotype 1400016000DNAEcotype


:125 - 555 km2127 km2


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox

.()


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4 single-gene disorder

Huntington's disease4,,,1872


() (basal ganglia basal nuclei)

huntingtin ( Htt) Htt HD Htt (glutamine) ( mHtt)


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox

>>


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox(Curtship)


3.4Mid-Parent Height

[ 7- 1( a)] 9 (syrinx) ?!2 X 1 X 1 Y Y (trogen) (: )


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox


3.4Q T Loci


3.5Summary


()

  • (History of the Study of Animal Behavior ).

  • (Genetic Analysis of Behavior ).

  • (Natural Selection and Behavior ).

  • (Learning and Cognition.)

  • (Physiological Analysis)

    • () (Nerve Cells and Behavior ).

    • () (The Endocrine System).

  • (The Development of Behavior ).


It is hard to pinpoint the precise beginnings of the study of animal behavior

Its roots can be traced back to the ancient Greek philosophers ()

summarized in 1855 by Herbert Spencer in Principles of Psychology ()

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

Herbert Spencer


Intellectual continuity ()

There is a continuity in mental states between lower and higher animals ()

Based on a picture of evolution similar to Aristotles scala naturae, the great chain of being

A linear, continuous evolution of species

Progression from sponges, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, nonhuman animals then humans

The animal mind and the human mind were simply points on a continuum


Darwins evolutionary framework

1. Variation exists among individuals, and some of this variation is inherited

2. Most offspring do not survive to reproduce

3. Some individuals survive and produce more offspring, as a consequence of inherited characteristics

Charles Darwins The Origin of Species (1859) provided a framework for developing the field of animal behavior:


Consequences of differential survival

4. Natural selection: the differential survival and reproduction of individuals resulting from genetically-based variation in their behavior, morphology, physiology, etc.

5. Evolutionary change occurs as the heritable traits of individuals that survive and reproduce are spread through the population

- Traits of less successful individuals are lost


George Romanes

  • George John Romanes FRS (19 May 1848 23 May 1894) was a Canadian-born English evolutionary biologist and physiologist who laid the foundation of what he called comparative psychology, postulating a similarity of cognitive processes and mechanisms between humans and animals.

George Romanes


Romanes table of emotions ()

  • He listed emotions in order of their historical or evolutionary appearance

Ayo ( 2010)


Other notable scientists

Jacques Loeb (1918): all patterns of behavior were simply forced movements or tropisms ()

Physiochemical reactions toward or away from stimuli

Herbert Spencer Jennings wrote Behavior of the Lower Organisms (1906)

Disagreed with Loeb

Emphasized the variability and modifiability of behavior


Herbert Spencer Jennings and Jacques Loeb

  • Herbert Spencer Jennings (born in Tonica, Illinois, April 8, 1868; died in Santa Monica, California, April 14, 1947) was a zoologist, geneticist, and eugenicist(). His research helped demonstrate the link between physical and chemical stimulation and automatic responses in lower orders of animals.

  • Jacques Loeb (born April 7, 1859, in Mayen, Rhineland-Palatinate; died February 11, 1924, in Hamilton, Bermuda) was a German-born American physiologist and biologist.

Jacques Loeb


20th century: Ethology vs. Comparative psychology()

Differences in opinion led to two major disciplines:

Ethology: centered in Europe

Focused on the evolution and function of behavior

Comparative psychology: centered in the United States

Focused on the mechanism and development of behavior

They asked different questions, and studied different types of behavior and organisms

Ethologists studied innate behavior in birds, fish, and insects

Comparative psychologists emphasized learned behavior in mammals such as the Norway rat


Ethology vs. comparative psychology

Describing the normal function of behavior

Ethologists observed the animal in its natural habitator in environments designed to simulate that habitat

Comparative psychologists believed that learning was best studied in the nurturelaboratory where variables could be controlled

Interests,

Ethologists were interested in species differences

Comparative psychologists searched for general laws of behavior.


Classical ethology

Its approach: evolutionary, comparative, descriptive, field oriented

Asks Why is that animal doing that?

Founded by Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and Karl von Frisch

European zoologists who shared the Nobel Prize in 1973

Concentrated on the evolution of behavior

Focused on inherited behavior

Emphasized phylogeny (the evolutionary history of a species)


  • Three Pioneer Observers of Animal Behaviour

  • Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.


Karl von Frisch

  • b. Nov. 20, 1886, Vienna, Austriad. June 12, 1982, Munich, W.Ger., zoologist whose studies of communication among bees added significantly to the knowledge of the chemical and visual sensors of insects.


Konrad LorenzNaturalist

  • b. Nov. 7, 1903, Vienna, Austriad. Feb. 27, 1989, Altenburg, Austrian zoologist, founder of modern ethology, the study of animal behaviour by means of comparative zoological methods.

  • His ideas contributed to an understanding of how behavioral patterns may be traced to an evolutionary past, and he was also known for his work on the roots of aggression.


Nikolaas Tinbergen

  • b. April 15, 1907, The Hague, Neth.d. Dec. 21, 1988, Oxford, Eng., Dutch-born British zoologist and ethologist (specialist in animal behaviour)

  • Tinbergen emphasized the importance of both instinctive and learned behaviour to survival and used animal behaviour as a basis for speculations about the nature of human violence and aggression. He is especially well known for his long-term observations of sea gulls, which led to important generalizations on courtship and mating behaviour.

Ayo ( 2010)


Ethologists compare closely related species

Lorenz: to know why an organism looks and acts as it does, one must resort to the comparative method

Comparative anatomists do this in examining morphology

For example, to understand why male flies of the species Hilara sartor spins an elaborate silken balloon() to present to a female before mating

It is compared to other fly species in the family Empididae ()

Ayo ( 2010)


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