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Chapter 3: Behavioral Genetics 遺傳行為學. 3.1 Introduction: Principles of Behavioral Genetics and the Evolution of Behavior  3.2 The Nature versus Nurture Debate  3.3 Evolution and Behavior  3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  3.5 Summary .

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Chapter 3 behavioral genetics
Chapter 3: Behavioral Genetics遺傳行為學

  • 3.1 Introduction: Principles of Behavioral Genetics and the Evolution of Behavior 

  • 3.2 The Nature versus Nurture Debate 

  • 3.3 Evolution and Behavior 

  • 3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox 

  • 3.5 Summary 


  • 耕耘,反思,城鄉共好】-2012彎腰系列講座 報名網址:http://goo.gl/2Npih近年,農事精彩、青年入田、綠色消費、學生進鄉,農運不息。 彎腰生活節邁入第四年,像初綻的新芽成長,而我們仍持續勞動澆灌。 今年彎腰系列講座,關注台灣各地萌發的小改變。 他們不是孤獨的理想者,而是野火燎原前的點點繁星。 今年,邀請您一起加深農業農村改變的可能,探尋城鄉共好的機會。 報名網址:http://goo.gl/2Npih【彎腰生活節】 學習古法,小農復耕在歷坵 │ 講者:紀錄片 陳韻如 10/10(三) 19:00-21:00 地點:滴咖啡(自來水園區分店)(台北市中正區思源街1號)台東縣金峰鄉的歷坵部落,和許多原住民的部落一樣,有著傳統文化流失和青年外移的問題。為了改變部落的命運,長者與回鄉青年合作,重新挖掘傳統農法中與自然和諧共存的智慧,推廣友善的小農復耕計畫,在部落的母土種出新希望。________________________________________________________________________ 從水梯田生態保育看農地多元價值的保存│ 講者:人禾基金會 方韻如 10/11(四) 19:00-21:00 地點:滴咖啡(自來水園區分店)(台北市中正區思源街1號)北宜交界的貢寮水梯田,是百餘年來人與自然互動平衡的生產生態地景,不僅是糧食生產,也提供了水源涵養調節、水土保持、野生物棲地、水域生態廊道等多元環境功能。林務局與人禾環境倫理發展基金會,加入貢寮里山社區推動水梯田生態保育計畫,結合環境教育與農業價值保存,在田裡種下人與生物合作互助的夢。


  • 自由貿易的浪潮─反思台灣農業的困境│ 講者:台灣農村陣線 陳思穎 10/12(五) 19:00-21:00 地點:滴咖啡(自來水園區分店)(台北市中正區思源街1號) 台灣自兩千年後加入WTO,自由貿易的風潮席捲了全台灣的產業,台灣受到的影響尤其嚴重。這幾年政府努力拓展國際貿易,期望藉由貿易自由化坐收經濟發展成效,然而FTA卻會讓台灣農業陷入更大的危機有機認證外的可能-參與式認證的想像│ 講者:主婦聯盟產品部經理 施宏昇

  • 10/16(二) 19:00-21:00 地點:滴咖啡(自來水園區分店)(台北市中正區思源街1號) 當有機被劃為法規內的認證,對台灣普遍小農的產銷是否有益備受質疑。有感於現行有機法的不健全與市場中有機認證的浮亂,主婦聯盟等非營利團體都在思考其它認證方式的可能,最終希望賦予消費者更有自主性、更能連結消費者與生產者的認證方式。 米如呼的滋味-勤和部落小農復耕紀錄 │ 講者:紀錄片導演 吳國禎 10/17(三) 19:00-21:00 地點:滴咖啡(自來水園區分店)(台北市中正區思源街1號) 位於高雄縣桃源鄉的勤和部落,每當遇到風災路斷便無法把山上的生鮮梅子運下山販賣,造成部落居民的經濟上的損失和不穩定。八八風災後,部落居民決定留在家鄉,透過小農復耕計畫發展梅子加工品,延長梅子儲存與銷售的時間,讓自產的梅子變成重建原鄉的基石。


行健村有機的夢 │ 講者:紀錄片導演 許文烽 10/18(四) 19:00-21:00 地點:滴咖啡(自來水園區分店)(台北市中正區思源街1號) 宜蘭行健村是平均年齡65歲的典型農村,在地的人們希望維護農村的永續生命,回歸從前和土地的純樸聯繫,集結社區「由下而上」的改變力量,實踐有機的理想。讓我們跟著進到行健村,看看有機的夢想如何可能。 合作經濟的力量 │ 講者:大王菜鋪子 王福裕 10/19(五) 19:00-21:00 地點:滴咖啡(自來水園區分店)(台北市中正區思源街1號) 基於想給孩子更純淨的成長環境,「大王」王福裕毅然在花蓮定居,和花東有機小農合作,為各地的居民配送新鮮安心的食材。靠自己力量創造「在地」和「友善環境」食物系統的大王,背後有著什麼樣的故事,歡迎大家一起來聽大王說故事。 三分蘿蔔田看天下│ 講者:樂樂農場 李慧宜 10/21 (日) 13:00-15:00地點:寶藏巖國際藝術村(台北市汀州路三段230巷14弄2號) 台灣的農業產銷一直是個難題。然而在這樣的困境背後,小農生產者和都市消費者要如何自力朝彼此邁進一步呢?除了提倡生產者資訊透明、消費者友善支持外,雙方在實際相處上還有更多的眉眉角角必須要互相了解。訊息互相往來,傳連起綿密的網絡,訴說著蘿蔔的生長、蕃茄的成熟和務農的酸甜苦辣。十月,請生產者來和大家一起聊聊,如何了解彼此細緻的需求,成為對方最堅實的後盾。


The nature versus nurture debate
The Nature versus Nurture Debate 

  • 先天與後天這一表述最早由莎士比亞筆下的《暴風雨》使用。 「一個魔鬼,天生的魔鬼,教養也改不過他的天性來」。

  • 「後天」在傳統意義上被定義為家長對和孩子的照顧,但是任何環境的(非遺傳)因素也應被算入其中,包括:兒時的玩伴、電視節目、與在母親肚子中經歷。事實上,切實存在的環境因素對人類的影響可以從出生前就開始。另外,孩童時期,尤其是早期,會影響整個孩童以後的發展,更泛一些,所有的生活經歷都是後天。


3 1 introduction killer bees and the evolution of behavior
3.1 Introduction: Killer Bees and the Evolution of Behavior

西方蜜蜂

A. m. ligustica牠們非常溫和,很少會聚集成群,並且可以生產大量的蜜糖。牠們在冬天時傾向聚集較大的群落,故須較多的空間或食物。牠們一般呈皮革色,一些群族會呈金色。

A. m. carnica牠們傾向呈深色,會縮減蜂巢過冬,並在春天快速擴建。牠們是山區蜜蜂,適合棲息在較寒冷地

在北美洲,殺人蜂廣泛分佈在美國南部,造成對人類的危害。野生蜜蜂作為入侵物種,在非原住的地方造成環境問題。進口的蜜蜂會競爭及取代原住的蜜蜂及鳥類,並幫助入侵植物的生長。


Both natural and artificial selection have produced many morphological varieties of the pigeon.


Pigeon breeders have selected for behavioral varieties of pigeons, including (A) tumbler (輾轉的) pigeons, and (B) homing pigeons.


If hunting in larger groups (up to some maximum group size) provides more food per dog than hunting in smaller groups (or alone), natural selection can favor group hunting.


When population size equals 100, the number of wild dogs that hunt in groups will increase in frequency, and they will eventually make up 100 percent of the population. No mutation and no migration.


Survival of the fittest that hunt in groups


3 3 evolution and behavior
3.3 Evolution and Behavior  that hunt in groups


Behavioral genetics
Behavioral genetics that hunt in groups

  • Using Mendel’s laws of genetics to predict the distribution of behavioral phenotypes

  • Mapping genes for behavioral traits

  • Using other measures of heritability 遺傳性to determine what percentage of the variation in a behavioral trait is genetic and what percentage is environmental.


  • 遺傳是衡量估計的總表型變異在人群中的遺傳和非遺傳差異的相對貢獻。在數量遺傳學遺傳是一個重要的概念,尤其是在選育和行為遺傳學(例如雙胞胎研究),但廣泛應用於群體遺傳學。遺傳是衡量估計的總表型變異在人群中的遺傳和非遺傳差異的相對貢獻。在數量遺傳學遺傳是一個重要的概念,尤其是在選育和行為遺傳學(例如雙胞胎研究),但廣泛應用於群體遺傳學。遺傳力測量可以歸因於遺傳變異的表型變異。這是不一樣的說,該餾分的個體表型是由遺傳引起的。此外,遺傳力可以改變沒有任何遺傳發生變化(例如,當環境開始貢獻更多的變化)。一個典型的例子,認為基因和環境的潛在影響智力。遺傳可能會增加遺傳變異的增加,導致個人表現出更多的表型變化(例如,顯示不同的智力水平)。在另一方面,遺傳力也可能會增加,如果在環境變化的減小,導致個人顯示較少的表型變異(例如,顯示更多的相似水平的情報)。遺傳貢獻更多的變化,或由於非遺傳因素導致更少的變化。在這裡,我們看到為什麼遺傳具體到某一特定人群在特定的環境。


Some of differences in the mating behavior of (A) satellite males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. The ss is for independent males.


Polygenic traits
Polygenic traits males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. 多基因控制—量性狀基因座

  • Quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

  • Fear/fearlessness in mice (Flint, et al., 1995)

  • 測試 mice 於 open-field behavior (fear)

  • 選擇the more fearfull mice, 分析其DNA

  • 相關fear的基因存在於,six different chromosomes (1,4,12,15,17和18)。

  • 倘若是走迷宮的fear,則存在於 chromosomes (1,12,和15)。


Dissecting behavioral variation males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive.

  • Parent-offspring regression

  • Breeding colony size in parents and offspring

  • Cross-fostering experiment

  • 金絲燕屬(學名Aerodramus)

  • 與其他雨燕目的種類比較,飛得比較慢,低及有飄忽不定的特徵。群體行動,一群鳥通常是100隻。

  • 某種類的金絲燕是能夠用回聲定位法在黑暗中探路,與蝙蝠類似。聲音頻率為1500-5500赫,在人耳能聽見的範圍內,聽見的聲音為「卡嗒聲」。每秒發音6次


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive.

交叉培養,可用於研究遺傳相關的疾病以及行為模式,後天環境的影響。行為研究,如果交叉撫育後代,自己的親生父母,寄養父母不一樣的行為特徵,行為可以被證明是有遺傳基礎。同樣,如果後代的發展不同,他們的親生父母和類似環境因素佔主導地位的寄養父母的特徵。在許多情況下,是一個融合了兩者,這表明這兩個基因和環境的一部分。金絲燕屬的巢大部份是由唾液構成,巢呈現小托座狀,有時會有些蕨類或樹皮,通常在山或海邊的洞穴,一些時候附在樹或峭壁上。其巢就是中國人喜好的燕窩。


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox1
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive.

用支持材料

用植物、非羽毛

用唾液黏

用羽毛


3 4 cladogram
3.4 Cladogram males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. 分枝樹狀圖


象鼻蟲 males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive.


3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox: Ecotype males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. 狗是一種不晚於14000年前,甚至可能在16000年前就已經被人類從野生狼類馴化。從DNA上來看,馴化可能最早發生在亞洲東南部。今天,家犬的種類已達數百個品種Ecotype ,家犬,如同人類一樣,是高度社會化的集體獵食動物。這大概就是為什麼它們的總體行為是可受訓,有趣並適合人類居家及社會環境了。


有些脊椎動物,尤其是那些 males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. 佔有群體領域的物種往往會迴避相鄰種群。動物佔有領域有多種功能,其中之一就是保衛資源,例如:狼群所佔有的領域就剛好能為整個狼群提供足夠的食物。雖然領域的大小通常是穩定的,但有時也會依獵物密度的大小而發生波動。然而個狼群的領域面積可能大至125 - 555 km2,因此僅僅靠狼群的出現是無法抵禦領域入侵的。實際上狼群常常靠發出叫聲和氣味標記宣告自己是領域的主人,這也是狼經常要曝叫的原因之一。人在幾千米之外就能昕到狼群的曝叫,而狼耳可以聽得更遠。據估計,狼的曝叫可以宣告大約127 km2 範圍內一個狼群的存在。當入侵者在狼群領域內的任何一個地方發出叫聲時,狼群成員通常都會發出警告叫。此外,狼群還會利用更加長效和局域性的氣味標記來增強大範圍內的通訊效果。這些標記物質所傳遞的信息是領域邊界的位置和狼群何時來過這裡,而曝叫則不含有這些信息。曝叫和化學物質標記相結合則有助於相鄰狼群彼此迴避和減少因相遇而造成的傷害。當一個狼群在自己的領域內遇到一隻或更多陌生狼時,後者就會受到追逐和攻擊,其中多數能夠逃脫,但也會有不少將被殺死。


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox2
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive.

釋放者的概念最初只用於種內通訊,後來又發現在不同物種成員之間也存在著信息交流,因此便提出了種間釋放者的概念。例如.很多種鳴禽(蘆鵬、歐鵝、大山雀、藍山雀和蒼頭燕雀)的叫聲雖然各不相同,但它們的報警鳴叫卻非常相似,這樣, 當危險來臨時不僅可向同種個體報警,同時也提醒了其他鳥類。有些鳥類不會發出報警鳴叫,但可對其他鳥類的報警鳴叫做出反應。


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox3
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive.

藍山雀與大山雀在冬天一起生活,藍山雀較喜歡棲息在幼長的樹枝上。藍山雀經常會像旅木雀科般在樹幹向上跳。牠們會棲息在常春藤或常綠植物上,但在惡劣天氣時則會避到洞中。藍山雀很靈活,差不多可以掛在任何地方。

大山雀鳴聲清脆悅耳,長相清秀,在中國是傳統的寵物鳥類,亦是中國非法鳥市中交易量最大的鳥類之一。但大山雀始終沒有實現人工飼養條件下的繁殖,因此鳥類貿易中所有的大山雀均直接從野外捕捉,這種非法鳥類貿易對野生鳥類種群造成極大的威脅


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox4
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. 胎盤位置影響成年行為


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox5
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive.


3 4 single gene disorder
3.4 males and (B) independent males are controlled by a single gene with two alleles labeled S and s. The S allele is dominant and codes for satellite male behavior, while the s allele is recessive. 亨丁頓舞蹈症 single-gene disorder

亨丁頓舞蹈症(Huntington's disease),又譯亨廷頓舞蹈症、杭丁頓舞蹈症等,是一種遺傳性神經退行性疾病,起因於第4對染色體異常,病發時會無法控制四肢,就像手舞足蹈一樣,並伴隨著智能減退,最後因吞嚥、呼吸困難等原因而死亡。該疾病由美國醫學家喬治·亨丁頓於1872年發現


如果把大腦想成是一顆球,那麼在靠近球心的部位 (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫基底核 (basal ganglia 或 basal nuclei)。它與大腦的運動、情緒、學習、記憶功能有密不可分的關係。就運動功能而言,基底核扮演著秘書的角色,將大腦發出的命令先行處理、修飾過,再把這個命令傳回大腦負責運動的部位,然後才把指令傳送到身體各處肌肉,指揮我們的一舉一動。

人體的每個正常細胞都有個叫做 huntingtin 的蛋白 (簡寫 Htt),若是完全缺乏,胚胎就會在母體子宮內死亡。故 Htt 蛋白是人體必需的,而它對神經細胞尤其重要,但其確切功能尚無定論。HD 患者製造出的 Htt 蛋白卻比一般人多出許多重複的麩醯氨酸 (glutamine) 這個胺基酸,而這個異常的蛋白 (簡寫 mHtt) 容易沾黏、聚集,最終導致神經的死亡。首當其衝的是患者的基底核,使得基底核無法修飾,或抑制大腦的指令,於是全身肌肉便不受控制地抽動。到了疾病的晚期,連負責下達指令的大腦表層也會逐漸死亡,屆時病人可能失去所有行動能力。


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox6
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

入侵者傾向養育大型蟻巢 >> 原生棲地


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox c urtship
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫動物在交配之前往往有一個求偶(Curtship) 過程,求偶有多種功能,包括確認求偶者自身所屬的物種和性別、減少求偶對象的攻擊傾向、協調雙方的行為和生理狀態以及評估潛在配偶


3 4 mid parent height
3.4 Mid-Parent Height (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

與大多數鳴禽一樣,斑馬雀只有雄雀能叫,其叫聲是為了刺激雌鳥的生殖行為。雖然大多數種類的雄鳥可用叫聲標記自己的領域,但斑馬雀是群居的,可允許其他個體近距離接近自己的巢而不發生衝突。斑馬雀鳴叫行為的性別差異反映著神經解剖學的兩性差異,目前已確知相當大的一部分腦與控制鳴叫發聲有關[ 圖7- 1( a)] 。鳴聲通路是由9 個腦區組成的,它們大都位於前腦,有一條通路是支配鳴管(syrinx) 發聲的神經通路。雄斑馬雀的鳴叫控制區明顯大於雄雀。在細胞水平上兩位神經解剖學的差異也很明顯,在雄雀大腦的鳴叫區,神經元比雌雀多而且大。然而這種差異是怎樣產生的呢?很顯然,斑馬雀兩性腦結構的雪大差更是應於毆哇!告色傻的差異。雄鳥有2 個X 染色體,而雌鳥則有1 個X 染色體和1 個Y 染色體。 Y 染色體的缺失將導致胚胎期的雄性生殖腺生產雌激素(臼trogen) ,這種激素可剌激大腦鳴叫區的生長與分化。實驗表明,雌激素對控制鳴叫行為的神經網絡有很大影響。如果把含有雌激素的藥丸植入新孵化的雄斑馬雀體內,它們會毫無影響(這就是說:在葳孕期用雌激素處理的雄雀, 其腦和叫聲都與未處理的雄雀相似)。相反,用雌激素處理的雌雛可使腦的鳴叫區擴大,但仍不如雄


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox7
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox8
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox9
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox10
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox11
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫


3 4 the behavioral genetics toolbox12
3.4 The Behavioral Genetics Toolbox  (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫


3 4 q t loci
3.4 Q T Loci  (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫


3 5 summary
3.5 Summary (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫


動物行為的研究途徑 (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫(個體行為)

  • 歷史背景(History of the Study of Animal Behavior ).

  • 基因分析 (Genetic Analysis of Behavior ).

  • 天擇 (Natural Selection and Behavior ).

  • 學習與認知 (Learning and Cognition.)

  • 生理分析 (Physiological Analysis)

    • (一) 神經細胞 (Nerve Cells and Behavior ).

    • (二) 內分泌系統 (The Endocrine System).

  • 發育(The Development of Behavior ).


動物行為研究起源 (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

It is hard to pinpoint the precise beginnings of the study of animal behavior

於西方,Its roots can be traced back to the ancient Greek philosophers (古希臘哲學家)

summarized in 1855 by Herbert Spencer in Principles of Psychology (心理學原理)

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

Herbert Spencer


Intellectual continuity
Intellectual continuity ( (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫理智連貫性)

There is a continuity in mental states between “lower” and “higher” animals (低等和高等動物)

Based on a picture of evolution similar to Aristotle’s scala naturae, the great chain of being

A linear, continuous evolution of species

Progression from sponges, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, nonhuman animals then humans

The animal mind and the human mind were simply points on a continuum


Darwin s evolutionary framework
Darwin (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫’s evolutionary framework

1. Variation exists among individuals, and some of this variation is inherited

2. Most offspring do not survive to reproduce

3. Some individuals survive and produce more offspring, as a consequence of inherited characteristics

Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species (1859) provided a framework for developing the field of animal behavior:


Consequences of differential survival
Consequences of differential survival (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

4. Natural selection: the differential survival and reproduction of individuals resulting from genetically-based variation in their behavior, morphology, physiology, etc.

5. Evolutionary change occurs as the heritable traits of individuals that survive and reproduce are spread through the population

- Traits of less successful individuals are lost


George romanes
George Romanes (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

  • George John Romanes FRS (19 May 1848 – 23 May 1894) was a Canadian-born English evolutionary biologist and physiologist who laid the foundation of what he called comparative psychology, postulating a similarity of cognitive processes and mechanisms between humans and animals.

George Romanes


Romanes table of emotions
Romanes (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫’ table of emotions (情感)

  • He listed emotions in order of their historical or evolutionary appearance

Ayo 教材 (動物行為學 2010)


Other notable scientists
Other notable scientists (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

Jacques Loeb (1918): all patterns of behavior were simply “forced movements” or tropisms (趨性)

Physiochemical reactions toward or away from stimuli

Herbert Spencer Jennings wrote Behavior of the Lower Organisms (1906)

Disagreed with Loeb

Emphasized the variability and modifiability of behavior


Herbert spencer jennings and jacques loeb
Herbert Spencer Jennings and Jacques Loeb (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

  • Herbert Spencer Jennings (born in Tonica, Illinois, April 8, 1868; died in Santa Monica, California, April 14, 1947) was a zoologist, geneticist, and eugenicist(優生學者). His research helped demonstrate the link between physical and chemical stimulation and automatic responses in lower orders of animals.

  • Jacques Loeb (born April 7, 1859, in Mayen, Rhineland-Palatinate; died February 11, 1924, in Hamilton, Bermuda) was a German-born American physiologist and biologist.

Jacques Loeb


20th century ethology vs comparative psychology
20th century: Ethology vs. Comparative psychology( (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫比較心理學)

Differences in opinion led to two major disciplines:

Ethology: centered in Europe

Focused on the evolution and function of behavior

Comparative psychology: centered in the United States

Focused on the mechanism and development of behavior

They asked different questions, and studied different types of behavior and organisms

Ethologists studied innate behavior in birds, fish, and insects

Comparative psychologists emphasized learned behavior in mammals such as the Norway rat


Ethology vs comparative psychology
Ethology vs. comparative psychology (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

Describing the normal function of behavior

Ethologists observed the animal in its natural habitator in environments designed to simulate that habitat

Comparative psychologists believed that learning was best studied in the nurturelaboratory where variables could be controlled

Interests,

Ethologists were interested in species’ differences

Comparative psychologists searched for general “laws” of behavior.


Classical ethology
Classical ethology (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

Its approach: evolutionary, comparative, descriptive, field oriented

Asks “Why is that animal doing that?”

Founded by Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and Karl von Frisch

European zoologists who shared the Nobel Prize in 1973

Concentrated on the evolution of behavior

Focused on inherited behavior

Emphasized phylogeny (the evolutionary history of a species)


  • Three Pioneer Observers of Animal Behaviour (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

  • Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.


Karl von frisch
Karl von Frisch (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

  • b. Nov. 20, 1886, Vienna, Austria—d. June 12, 1982, Munich, W.Ger., zoologist whose studies of communication among bees added significantly to the knowledge of the chemical and visual sensors of insects.


Konrad lorenz naturalist
Konrad Lorenz (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫Naturalist

  • b. Nov. 7, 1903, Vienna, Austria—d. Feb. 27, 1989, Altenburg, Austrian zoologist, founder of modern ethology, the study of animal behaviour by means of comparative zoological methods.

  • His ideas contributed to an understanding of how behavioral patterns may be traced to an evolutionary past, and he was also known for his work on the roots of aggression.


Nikolaas tinbergen
Nikolaas Tinbergen (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

  • b. April 15, 1907, The Hague, Neth.—d. Dec. 21, 1988, Oxford, Eng., Dutch-born British zoologist and ethologist (specialist in animal behaviour)

  • Tinbergen emphasized the importance of both instinctive and learned behaviour to survival and used animal behaviour as a basis for speculations about the nature of human violence and aggression. He is especially well known for his long-term observations of sea gulls, which led to important generalizations on courtship and mating behaviour.

Ayo 教材 (動物行為學 2010)


Ethologists compare closely related species
Ethologists compare closely related species (也就是大腦的深層),有個由眾多神經細胞組成的構造叫

Lorenz: to know why an organism looks and acts as it does, one must resort to the comparative method

Comparative anatomists do this in examining morphology

For example, to understand why male flies of the species Hilara sartor spins an elaborate silken balloon(精緻絲球) to present to a female before mating

It is compared to other fly species in the family Empididae (舞虻科)

Ayo 教材 (動物行為學 2010)


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