International merchandise trade statistics
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International Merchandise Trade Statistics. Course on Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual (BPM6) IMF-PFTAC Nadi November 22-December 1 , 2010. DM06. Discussion Outline. International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Reference Material Systems – PCTrade, ASYCUDA

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International merchandise trade statistics

International Merchandise Trade Statistics

Course on Balance of Payments and

International Investment Position Manual (BPM6)



November 22-December 1, 2010


Discussion outline
Discussion Outline

  • International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Reference Material

  • Systems – PCTrade, ASYCUDA

  • Challenges

    • Coverage

    • Exports vs. imports

  • Experiences, good and bad

Reference material
Reference Material

  • International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Concepts and Definitions, 2010

    • Approved by UNSC Feb 2010

    • Replaces 1998 manual Studies in Methods , Series M, No.52, Rev.2


  • International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers Manual, 2004

    • Series:F, No. 87


    • (There is also a supplement released Dec 2009, printed only)

  • Both are on the CD

Imts 2010
IMTS 2010

  • Adopted by UNSC Feb 2010

  • Revision started by UNSC Feb 2008 due to:

    • Changes in the way international merchandise trade is conducted, e.g. increasing globalization, expansion of intra-firm trade, transactions with bundled goods and services components

    • Changes in user needs - more detailed and timely data for market access negotiations and trade policy purposes, market research, etc

    • Changes in the legal environment, e.g., Revised Kyoto Convention

    • Increasing use of non-customs data sources, e.g., members of a customs union

    • Changes in related statistical frameworks, e.g., SNA, BOP

    • Need for additional recommendations on data compilation strategies, quality and metadata, and dissemination

    • Need for further clarification of some existing concepts and improvement of the overall readability

Imts 2010 2
IMTS 2010 (2)

  • Major conceptual difference – IMTS 2010 vs. BPM6

    • IMTS is based on the general principle to record all goods that add to or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory

    • BPM6 is based on the principle of change of ownership between residents and nonresidents

Imts 2010 changed recommendations 3
IMTS 2010 Changed Recommendations (3)

  • Trade below customs and statistical thresholds: Estimate and include if economically significant

  • Change of ownership: Use as criteria for recording of certain goods only in exceptional cases when the general guideline is not applicable or not sufficient

  • Specific guidelines: Include certain categories of goods, include and separately identify (code)

  • Exclude but record separately: Exclude certain categories of goods but record them separately for use in balance of payments and national accounts and other purpose

  • Media, whether or not recorded: Include at its full transaction value, except for media used for carrying customized software or software written for a specific client or originals of any nature, which should be excluded

  • Goods for processing with or without change of ownership: Include at their full (gross) value

  • Goods for processing as well as goods resulting from such processing where no change of ownership takes place: Include and explicitly identify (preferably by special coding) in your trade statistics

Imts 2010 changed recommendations 4
IMTS 2010 Changed Recommendations (4)

  • Goods which cross borders as a result of transactions between related parties: Include and separately identify (code)

  • Fish catch, minerals from the seabed and salvage; Bunkers, stores, ballast and dunnage: Include all transaction not only the ones taking place inside and but also the ones taking place outside the economic territory where economically or environmentally significant

  • Goods simply being transported through a country and Goods temporarily admitted or dispatched: Exclude

  • Reimports and re-exports: Include and identify (code) separately for analytical purposes

  • Customs procedure codes: Make information about the customs procedure applied to individual transactions part of the dataset for trade statistics

  • Statistical value: Record a statistical value for all goods covered in trade statistics, whether sold, exchanged or provided without payment

  • Statistical value of exported and imported goods: Use free on board (FOB-type) valuation for exports (border of the exporting county) and cost, insurance and freight (CIF-type) valuation for imports (border of the importing country); countries are encouraged to compile FOB-type value of imported goods as supplementary information

Imts 2010 changed recommendations 5
IMTS 2010 Changed Recommendations (5)

  • Compilation of data on freight and insurance: Countries which compile only CIF-type values of imports are encouraged to compile separately data for freight and insurance, at the most detailed commodity and partner level possible

  • Country of consignment: Record the country of consignment as the second partner country attribution for imports alongside with country of origin; for exports the additional compilation of the country of consignment is encouraged

  • Calculation of trade balances: Use imports by country of origin and exports by country of last known destination

  • Compilation of mode of transport: Compile and disseminate international merchandise trade statistics by mode of transport at the most detailed commodity level (as a new data dimension)

  • Use of non customs records: Supplement customs based data with information obtained from other sources, as necessary, to ensure full coverage of international merchandise trade statistics. Use non-customs sources as substitutes for available customs records only if they provide a cost effective way to improve quality of trade statistics

  • Systematic approach to data quality: Follow a systematic approach to data quality and develop standards and related good practices covering the institutional arrangements, the statistical processes and outputs (the entire trade statistics program)

Imts 2010 changed recommendations 6
IMTS 2010 Changed Recommendations (6)

  • Confidentiality rules: Use passive confidentiality as much as possible, unless the use of active confidentiality is already the established, desired and accepted practice (passive = only on request of trader and if justified by statistical authority’s confidentiality rules)

  • Data dissemination timetable: Announce in advance the precise dates at which the statistics will be released and revised

  • Linking business and trade statistics: Integrate the trade register with the business register and take steps towards an integrated system of economics statistics for data compilation and analysis

Systems and processes
Systems and Processes

  • PCTrade vs. ASYCUDA vs. CMS?

  • NZ support for PCTrade

    • NZAid financing support provided by StatsNZ continuing past June 2011

  • CMS new system for Tonga (private company)

  • NZ Customs new system => Cook Islands

Systems and processes 2
Systems and Processes (2)

  • Who captures ITS data?

    • Customs Office vs. NSO?

    • Pros and cons

      • Quality (accuracy, timeliness), control, resources

  • Does replacing the system fix the problems?


  • HS07 – for collection of trade data

  • For analysis of data:

    • BEC, SITC, CPC

    • ISIC for industry of origin

  • Concordances linking classifications

Msits 2010
MSITS 2010


  • Draft presented to UNSC Feb 2010

  • Some further explanation of services for BOP and links to other statistical frameworks