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Unexpected Violence in the Workplace – The New Reality!. Raymond C. Ferrara, CPP, CFE, MBCI, CBM, M.S.Ed. Objectives. Raise awareness List prevention strategies Look at legal issues Identify documentation requirements. Convert your new expertise into action. Statistics.

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Unexpected Violence in the Workplace – The New Reality!

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Unexpected violence in the workplace the new reality

Unexpected Violence in the Workplace – The New Reality!

Raymond C. Ferrara, CPP, CFE, MBCI, CBM, M.S.Ed


Objectives

Objectives

  • Raise awareness

  • List prevention strategies

  • Look at legal issues

  • Identify documentation requirements.

  • Convert your new expertise into action


Statistics

Statistics

  • Approximately 2 million people in the United States are victims of workplace violence each year

  • In an average week in United States workplaces, one employee is killed and at least 25 are seriously injured in violent assaults by current or former coworkers

  • Workplace violence accounts for nearly 16% of all work-related fatal occupational injuries.

  • The Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics lists homicide as one of the top four leading causes of death within the workplace

  • Homicide is the 2nd leading cause of job-related deaths for women


Statistics1

Statistics

  • Approximately 68 percent of employers have written policies addressing workplace violence

  • Approximately 79 percent of employers regulate and/or prevent weapons on company premises

  • Workplace violence costs a lot more to worry about than attorney fees

    • U.S. businesses about $4.2 billion annually

    • American companies pay over 1,700,000 sick days annually due to lost time resulting directly from workplace violence


Healthcare stats

Healthcare Stats

  • The healthcare sector leads all other industries, with 45% of all nonfatal assaults against workers resulting in lost work days in the US. (BLS, 2006)

  • In 2009 there were 2,050 assaults and violent acts reported by RNs requiring an average of 4 days away from work (BLS, Private Industry, State and Local Government, 2011)


What is workplace violence

What is Workplace Violence?

  • Workplace violence is any physical assault, threatening behavior, or verbal abuse occurring in the work setting.

  • According to the FBI, “WPV includes:

    Homicide, physical assault, domestic violence, stalking, threats, harassment, bullying, emotional abuse, intimidation, and other forms of conduct that create anxiety, fear, and a climate of distrust in the workplace.


What is workplace violence cont d

What is Workplace Violence? Cont’d…

A workplace may be any location either permanent

or temporary where an Associate performs any

work-related duty.

  • This includes, but is not limited to,

    the building and the surrounding perimeters,

    including the parking lots, field location,

    customers’ job sites, and traveling to and

    from work assignments.


According to shrm

According to SHRM

  • Workplace violence: Assaults and other violent acts or threats that occur in or are related to the workplace and entail a substantial risk of physical or emotional harm to individuals or damage to company resources or capabilities.

  • Workplace violence may involve employees, clients and vendors of the affected organization as well as those who do not have a relationship with the organization but who may know the intended victims.


Types of wpv and preventative strategies

Types of WPV and Preventative Strategies

Type I:

  • Violent acts by criminals who have no connection with the workplace, but enter to commit robbery or another crime

  • Most Common Victims:

    • Bank runs, second/third shift workers

  • Preventative Strategies:

    • Emphasis on physical security measures, special employer policies, and Associate training (Physical Security Assessment, camera, panic alarms, hold-up procedures)


Types of wpv and preventative strategies1

Types of WPV and Preventative Strategies

Type II:

Violence directed at Associates/employees by customers or vendors

  • Most Common Victims:

    • Counter sales, showroom consultants, and drivers

  • Preventative Strategies:

    • Policy, procedures, awareness training


Types of wpv and preventative strategies2

Types of WPV and Preventative Strategies

Type III:

Violence against coworkers, supervisors, or managers by a present or former associate/employee

  • Most Common Victims:

    • Any Associate/employee

  • Preventative Strategies:

    • Policy, procedures, training, assessment, observable behaviors


Types of wpv and preventative strategies3

Types of WPV and Preventative Strategies

Type IV:

Violence committed in the workplace by someone who does not work there, but has a personal relationship with an associate/employee

  • An abusive spouse or domestic partner

  • Most Common Victims:

    • Any Associate/employee

  • Preventative Strategies:

    • Policy, procedures, training, security department awareness


  • Other types of wpv

    Other Types of WPV:

    • Property-Directed

      • Associate damaging company property or reputation

    • Terroristic violence against a targeted company and its associates

    • Gang-related violence


    Examples of wpv

    Examples of WPV

    • Making false, malicious or unfounded statements against coworkers, supervisors, or subordinates which tend to damage their reputations or undermine their authority

    • Inappropriate remarks, such as making delusional statements

    • Fascination with guns or other weapons, bringing weapons into the workplace

    GOSSIP


    Examples of wpv1

    Examples of WPV

    • Verbal harassment; abusive or offensive language, gestures or other discourteous conduct towards supervisors, fellow Associates, or customers

    • Disorderly conduct, such as shouting, throwing or pushing objects, punching walls, and slamming doors


    Examples of wpv2

    Examples of WPV

    • Verbal threats to inflict bodily harm; including vague or covert threats

    • Attempting to cause physical harm; striking, pushing and other aggressive physical acts against another person


    Actual threats

    Actual Threats

    • Do not minimize actual statements or threats made by the individual

    • Take them at their word or action and respond appropriately. Contact your Human Resources or Security Department, if you have one. If serious, contact law enforcement immediately.

    • Document the threat.


    Potential results of wpv

    Potential Results of WPV

    • Workplace violence damages…

      • Trust

      • Community

      • Sense of security

    • Every Associate/employee has a right to feel safe and secure while on the job


    Violence in the workplace

    Homicides

    Physical Assaults

    Verbal Threats

    Intimidation & Harassment

    Hassles & High Maintenance

    Violence in the Workplace

    High

    Risk

    of

    Harm

    Low

    Risk

    of

    Harm


    Continuum of workplace violence

    Verbal

    abuse

    Continuum of Workplace Violence

    Homicide

    Threats

    Assaults


    Legal duties and obligations

    Legal Duties and Obligations

    • OSHA General Duty clause, Workers’ Comp and Civil Rights laws require:

      • The employer has a legal obligation to provide a workplace free of conditions or activities that either the employer or industry recognizes as hazardous and that cause, or are likely to cause, death or serious physical harm to employees when there is a feasible method to abate the hazard.

      • Employers responsible for job-related injuries.

      • Protection from harassment, threats, and violence.


    Legal duties and obligations1

    Legal Duties and Obligations

    If NO action is taken to

    avert preventable

    violence, the victim may

    sue the employer under

    such claims as

    negligence, workers’

    comp, and OSHA.


    Legal duties and obligations zero incidents trumps zero tolerance

    Legal Duties and ObligationsZero Incidents Trumps Zero Tolerance

    But if action is taken to

    avert preventable violence,

    the accused may sue the

    employer for such claims

    as discrimination, invasion

    of privacy, false

    imprisonment, wrongful

    discharge, defamation.


    Interdisciplinary response to wpv

    Interdisciplinary Response to WPV

    • There needs to be written policies that address threats, violence, harassment, drug and alcohol use, and weapons.

      • Physical Security Surveys

      • Threat Assessment Teams (HR, Risk, Legal, Security

      • Safety, Facilities Management)

      • Outside resources (Operational Psychologists,

      • Executive Protection Specialists)

      • Trained Threat Management Teams

      • Threat Assessment


    Evaluating current prevention and intervention practices

    Evaluating Current Prevention and Intervention Practices

    • Does your organization have protocols in place to manage workplace emergencies?

    • Does your organization identify clear lines of workplace behavior?

    • Does your workplace encourage employees to report circumstances of concern?

    • Are employees aware and trained about policies or programs related to workplace violence?


    Evaluating current prevention and intervention practices1

    Evaluating Current Prevention and Intervention Practices

    Does your organization have the following:

    • Anti-harassment and discrimination policy?

    • Substance abuse policy?

    • Code of business conduct/ethics policy?

    • Electronic communication policy?

    • Inspection policy establishing employer’s right to access employee’s workplace computer, desk, locker, other items and premises as may be necessary and appropriate during an investigation?


    Wpv threat assessment survey recommendations for workplace violence prevention programs

    WPV Threat Assessment SurveyRecommendations for Workplace Violence Prevention Programs

    • For a sample threat assessment survey, go to www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3153.pdf

      or www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3148.pdf


    Physical security assessment

    Physical Security Assessment

    According to ASIS, a physical security risk assessment could include the following items:

    • Documenting law enforcement, fire department and hospital locations and contact information.

    • Documenting contacts for security staff in nearby facilities.

    • Documenting other building tenants.

    • Securing all building entrances after hours, and arming alarm systems.


    Physical security assessment1

    Physical Security Assessment

    • Securing dock/shipping areas at all times.

    • Making sure all entrances, parking lots and grounds are well-lit.

    • Securing doors and windows so they cannot be easily opened or removed.

    • Actively monitoring video cameras during business hours and ensuring that cameras cover all entrances, exits and parking areas.


    Physical security assessment2

    Physical Security Assessment

    • Functioning adequate access control system

    • Implementing commercial-grade security locks

    • Doing an inventory of electronic key cards, to ensure they are returned by exiting employees, and deactivating cards immediately after workers leave the organization or lose their card

    • Tracking and auditing employees’ keys


    Risk factors and early warning signs

    Risk Factors and Early Warning Signs

    • Moral righteousness (“I’ve been wronged”)

    • Can’t (or won’t) take criticism; does nothing wrong

    • Homicidal or suicidal comments or threats

    • Holds a grudge, especially against management

    • Expresses desperation over work or family

    • Has history of violent behavior (on or off job)

    • Fascinated with incidents of workplace violence

    • Intimidating and/or harassing behavior


    More risk factors and early warning signs

    More Risk Factors and Early Warning Signs

    • Carrying or displaying work tools as weapons

    • Threats of harm (direct or veiled)

    • Paranoia (“They’re out to get me”)

    • Excessive drug or alcohol use

    • Experiencing legal problems

    • Ignores co-worker safety

    • Outbursts of anger

    • What’s your “gut” telling you?


    Sample threat management process non emergency

    Sample Threat Management Process Non-emergency


    Threat risk screening

    Threat Risk Screening

    Fact finding verification

    • Confirm the statements leading to the threat

    • Current and former supervisors

    • Background check refresh

    • HR files


    Threat risk screening1

    Threat Risk Screening

    • Motivating factors for the action or statements

    • What was communicated – Hunter or Howler

    • Violence interest, weapons, group affiliation

    • Has the individual engaged in planning an act

    • Conducted site surveillance, target harassing, breaching, stalking

    • History of mental illness or substance abuse


    Threat risk screening2

    Threat Risk Screening

    Has the individual exhibited symptom:

    • Paranoia, delusional ideas

    • Extreme agitation

    • Suicidal tendencies

    • Acted out on beliefs


    Threat risk screening3

    Threat Risk Screening

    Does the individual blame others or exhibit a strong sense of entitlement, defensiveness, intolerance of others

    Is the individual experiencing strong life stressors

    • Financial, divorce, custody disputes, loss of status, death in the family (human factors)


    Threat risk screening4

    Threat Risk Screening

    What is the individual’s known history

    • Conflict

    • Violence

    • Criminal conduct (domestic or substance abuse)


    Threat risk screening5

    Threat Risk Screening

    • Does the individual have critical emotional anchors (family)

    • Has the individual expressed genuine remorse

    • Has the individual responded positively to defusing efforts

    • Has the individual engaged in problem solving and sought professional treatment


    Threat assessment knowledge resources

    Threat Assessment Knowledge Resources


    Lone worker safety

    Lone Worker Safety

    “Someone who works by themselves without close or direct supervision.”

    “Lone working should carry no more risk than normal working, but managers must recognize that risks to lone workers are greater because there is a reduced level of immediate support available.”


    Lone worker safety1

    Lone Worker Safety


    Lone worker safety2

    Lone Worker Safety

    Situational Awareness:

    • is the ability to identify, process, and comprehend the critical elements of information immediately confronting you. More simply, it’s knowing what is going on around you. Are you prepared to respond to these critical pieces of information?


    Lone worker safety3

    Lone Worker Safety

    • Eliminate lone working if possible

    • Implement control measures to reduce risk

    • Train staff members in methods of safe lone working

    • Monitor the situation to ensure the risk reduction methods work


    The receptionist

    The Receptionist

    • Identify and resolve security vulnerabilities in the front desk and reception area

    • Develop procedures and policies to maintain a secure front desk area and facility

    • Recognize at-risk and threatening behaviors of irate customers and visitors


    The receptionist1

    The Receptionist

    • Identify common tactics that distract front desk personnel from dangerous, criminal actions

    • De-escalate hostile individuals and manage hostile encounters

    • Interact with aggressive customers and visitors


    Domestic violence in the workplace

    Domestic Violence in the Workplace

    • Harassing Phone calls

    • Stalking

    • Unauthorized entry

    • Protective Orders

    • No Trespassing notice

    • Criminal records research


    Domestic violence

    Domestic Violence


    Active shooter myths realities

    Active ShooterMyths & Realities

    • Myths

      • No one knew

      • Never saw it coming

      • He just snapped

    • Realities

      • Erratic or abnormal behavior is a warning sign of possible future violence.

      • Warnings can be through comments, feelings, or thoughts.

      • There are flags along the path to violence.


    The faces of active shooters

    The Faces of Active Shooters

    1986

    Patrick Sherrill

    Killed 14

    Wounded 6

    1966

    Charles Whitman

    Killed 14

    Wounded 32

    2012

    James E. Holmes

    2012

    Adam Lanza

    2013

    Aaron Alexis

    Killed 12

    Wounded 58

    Killed 27

    Wounded 2

    2003

    Doug Williams

    Killed 6

    Wounded 9

    Killed 12

    Wounded 8

    1991

    George Hennard

    Killed 23

    Wounded 20

    2013

    Christopher Dorner

    2013

    John Zawahri

    2011

    Jared Lee Loughner

    Killed 6

    Wounded 12

    Killed 4

    Wounded 3

    Killed 4

    Injured 5

    2007

    Seung-Hui Cho

    Killed 32

    Wounded 25

    1999

    Dylan Klebold

    Eric Harris

    Killed 13

    Wounded 21

    2009

    Nidal Malik Hasan

    Killed 13

    Wounded 32

    2007

    Robert A. Hawkins

    Killed 9

    Wounded 4

    2001

    William D. Baker

    Killed 5

    Wounded 4


    Active shooter response

    Active Shooter Response

    • Seek secure area

    • Calm, reassure, and quiet others

    • Report the incident

    • Treat the injured

    • Law enforcement response:

      • Objective is to neutralize threat

      • Evacuation

      • Follow-up medical care, interview, counseling

      • Investigation


    Active shooter training

    Active Shooter Training

    Run – Hide – Fight

    http://www.readyhoustontx.gov/videos.html


    Practical advice

    Practical Advice

    • Support victims of WPV and domestic violence

      • Don’t punish them

    • Adopt and practice fair and consistent disciplinary procedures for violators

    • Build a workplace climate of trust and respect

    • At the first sign of WPV, have your established protocol ready. CONTACT YOUR THREAT MANAGEMENT TEAM. If necessary, contact law enforcement.


    Understanding employer contributions to wpv

    Understanding Employer Contributions to WPV

    • Understaffing

    • Poorly defined job responsibilities

    • Downsizing and re-organization

    • Poor labor-management relations

    • Negative management styles

      • Arbitrary orders, micro-managing, public reprimands, inconsistent discipline

    • Inadequate security

    • Lack of Associate counseling

    • Lax safety standards – high injury rate

    • Not addressing Associate grievances


    Hiring practices

    Hiring Practices

    • What your Risk/Human Resources Department can do to assist:

      • Pre-employment screening

      • Review histories of drug or alcohol abuse

      • Past work conflicts

      • Criminal convictions

  • What you should do:

    • The Interview

      • Defensive hostile attitude?

      • Frequent job changes?

      • Blames others for problems?


  • Managers responsibilities

    Managers’ Responsibilities

    • Demonstrate the workplace culture and climate

    • Do not tolerate horseplay, bullying, intimidation, lack of trust

    • Prevent high levels of stress, frustration, and anger

    • Prevent poor communication

    • Team approach for response


    Employees should understand

    Employees Should Understand:

    • Policy and procedure

      • Medical care, counseling, workers’ comp, legal assistance, PTSD, Corporate Chaplain Program, EAP

    • Risk factors and warning signs

    • Prevention and defusing techniques

    • Cultural diversity

    • Action and assistance plans

    • Personal protection

      • Buddy system, night escort

    • Reporting and record keeping


    Employees should understand1

    Employees Should Understand:

    A safe way to anonymously report a crime, or potential crime, without fear of reprisal


    Response recommendations

    Response Recommendations

    Remember the “Three R’s”:

    Red Flags

    Resources

    Recovery

    RRR


    Response recommendations1

    Response Recommendations

    First “R”:

    Red Flags

    Recognize a potential

    problem for what it is – a

    potential problem!

    You don’t need to be a

    a work prevention expert

    to figure it out. That’s why

    you’ve got…


    Response recommendations2

    Response Recommendations

    Second “R”:

    Resources

    “Who ya gonna call?”

    Human Resources

    Security

    Legal

    Employment Practices

    Employee Assistance Program

    Counselors

    Social Service agencies

    Law enforcement


    Response recommendations3

    Response Recommendations

    Third “R”:

    Recovery

    Once we identify the problem (red flag) and consult with the right people (resources), it’s time to “fix it and make it better” (recovery).


    To prevent wpv go loco

    To Prevent WPV --- Go LOCO

    GoLOCO

    Listen to employees

    Observe employees

    Compare notes with colleagues

    Obtain help


    Unexpected violence in the workplace the new reality

    Now That We’ve Just Traveled Down the Road Leading to the

    Prevention of Workplace Violence…


    Let s revisit our objectives

    Let’s Revisit our Objectives

    • Raised awareness

    • Listed prevention strategies

    • Looked at legal issues

    • Identified documentation requirements

      NOW, it’s time for YOU to…

      Convert your new expertise into action!


    Resources

    Resources

    http://peaceatwork.org/http://www.workplaceviolence911.com/

    https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/workplaceviolence/index.html


    Resources1

    Resources

    http://www.atapworldwide.org/

    http://workplaceviolencenews.com/


    Healthcare resources

    Healthcare Resources

    http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/violence/training_nurses.html

    http://nursingworld.org/workplaceviolence

    https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthcarefacilities/violence.html


    Healthcare resources1

    Healthcare Resources

    https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hospital/hazards/workplaceviolence/viol.html

    https://www.asisonline.org/

    http://www.iahss.org/


    Why this is important

    Why this is important

    Pelham, Alabama


    That s it

    That’s It!

    Raymond C. Ferrara, CPP, CFE, MBCI, CBM, M.S.Ed


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