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The Linnaean System of Classification. Grouped organisms by physical characteristics in nested hierarchies Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species. Binomial Nomenclature. Two names Genus and species Better than a common name because it is always specific to a single species

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The linnaean system of classification
The Linnaean System of Classification

  • Grouped organisms by physical characteristics in nested hierarchies

    • Kingdom

    • Phylum

    • Class

    • Order

    • Family

    • Genus

    • Species


Binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature

  • Two names

    • Genus and species

  • Better than a common name because it is always specific to a single species

  • Ex: Homo sapiens

  • Homo neaderthalensis

  • Gorilla gorillagorilla

  • BufoBufo


How biologist classify living things
How biologist classify living things

  • Physical characteristics – color, size, shape

  • Genetic similarities and differences - DNA

  • Fossil records of ancestors

  • Embryological developement

    Goal: Classification mirrors evolutionary relationships


Annelids segmented worms
Annelids – Segmented Worms

Genetics and Embryology show this is their closest relative

Scientists used to think this was their closest relative

Arthropods

Flatworms


Biological classification
Biological Classification

  • Domain - 3

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species - 2 million described, 5-20 million estimated

  • The scientific name of a species is always its genus and species in italics

  • Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Soup

  • Dumb Kids Play Chicken On Freeway, Get Smushed


History of kingdoms
History of Kingdoms

  • 1753 - Linnaeaus – two kingdoms: Animalia and Plantae

  • 1866 – Animalia, Plantae, Protista

  • 1938 - Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Monera

  • 1959 - Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Monera, Fungi

  • 1977 - Animalia, Plantae, Protista, Monera, Fungi, Archaea


Three domains
Three Domains

  • Bacteria – no nucleus

  • Archaea – no nucleus, different cell walls

  • Eukarya – cells have a nucleus

    • Animalia

    • Plantae

    • Fungi

    • Protista


Classification of humans
Classification of Humans

  • Domain: Eukarya

  • Kingdom: Animalia

  • Phylum: Chordata

  • Class: Mammalia

  • Order: Primates

  • Family: Hominidae

  • Genus: Homo

  • Species: Homo sapiens



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