Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts
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Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS. Martin Fritz European Data Laboratory for Comparative Social Research (EUROLAB), GESIS, Cologne. Current trends in the world of (flexible) work - a sociological perspective. De- standardization , De- regulation , Flexibilization,

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Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS

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Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS

Martin Fritz

European Data Laboratory for Comparative Social Research

(EUROLAB), GESIS, Cologne


Current trends in the world of (flexible) work

- a sociological perspective

De-standardization, De-regulation, Flexibilization,

Expansion of Non-Standard Employment

wage-labourbasedFordismassocial/employmentstandard

finance-driven Post-Fordism

Innovations (ICT), Globalization, Policydecisions, Value change

Will therebe a newsociallyinclusiveemploymentstandard?

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


EU Directives to establish this new socially inclusive employment standard:

  • The European Social Partners ETUC, UNICE and CEEP developed a framework agreement on fixed-term work put into effect by COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC :

  • purpose: to improve the quality of fixed-term work

  • by a) applying the principle of non-discrimination and b) measures to prevent abuse

  •  What are the social differences between fixed-term and permanent work, so that there is a need for non-discrimination?

  • What social problems are caused by fixed-term work?

  • How can social inclusion be achieved?

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


EU Directive on fixed-term work

From the preamble of COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC :

“They [the social partners] also recognize

that fixed-term employment contracts respond,

in certain circumstances,

to the needs of both employers and workers.”

?

 Why should employees prefer to have a fixed-term rather than a permanent contract? Or does this mean they prefer it over being unemployed?

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


What Sociologists think:

flexploitation

The rise in fixed-termworkhasobjectiveandsubjective, individual andsocietalconsequences:

loss of solidarity

precarity

corrosion of character

In-work Poverty

Inequality

Anxieties about future

anomie

Depressions

feelings of replaceability

growing distrust

Insecurity

chains of uncertainty

loss of long-term orientation

Zygmunt Bauman

Pierre Bourdieu

Richard Sennett

Ulrich Beck

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Incidence of fixed-term/temporary employment in Europe (in % of all employees, 15-74 years), source: Eurostat

ImplementationofDirective99/70/EC

on fixed-termemployment

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


  • What is behind this slowly rising overall trend and the country differences?

  • 1. Who is doing fixed-term work?

    • groups that are relatively new on the labour markets: very young and older persons and women?

    • or vulnerable workers who can‘t find other job?

    •  social structure of fixed-term work: gender, age and education

  • 2. What changes occuredwithin the social structure of fixed-term workers in the last years?

    • does it become more gendered, are increasingly young people holding fixed-term contracts or more and more the low-skilled?

    •  looking at trends

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Compositionoffixed-termwork: gender, ageandeducation, source: Eurostat

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Changes in the socio-demographic composition of fixed-term employment from 1998-2008 (%), source: Eurostat

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


  • Social Problems of Fixed-term Work

  • 2 Examples:

  • Povertyaseconomicinsecurity

  • Anomie atcountrylevel

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Poverty rates for permanent and temporary work, 27 European countries, 18-64yrs

Source: vanLancker 2013, based on EU-SILC 2008 data

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Extracts from multilevel logistic regressions on the risk of poverty (odds ratios)

Source: vanLancker 2013, based on EU-SILC 2008 data

* p<0.05,

** p<0.01,

*** p<0.001.

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Extracts from Correspondence Analyses on anomie and non-standard employment at country level

Source: Fritz 2013

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Extracts from Correspondence Analyses on anomie and non-standard employment at country level

Source: Fritz 2013

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Conclusions

  • Fixed-termworkisespeciallyproblematicfor: families, lowereducatedpersonsand in countries withdominanceof male breadwinner model, i.e. South European countries

  • DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC on fixed-term work does not solve this problems, thus it doesn’t contribute to a new socially inclusive employment standard

  • otherformsof flexible work (aspart-time work) cancontributemoreto a newstandardas also socialpolicymeasureslikeminimumincomesandwages etc. whichprotectespeciallythemost vulnerable

  • More information in ourbook:

  • Max Koch & Martin Fritz „Non-Standard Employment in Europe. Paradigms, PrevalenceandPolicy Responses.“

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


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