Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts
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Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS. Martin Fritz European Data Laboratory for Comparative Social Research (EUROLAB), GESIS, Cologne. Current trends in the world of (flexible) work - a sociological perspective. De- standardization , De- regulation , Flexibilization,

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Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS

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Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Fixed-term WORK IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND SOCIAL IMPACTS

Martin Fritz

European Data Laboratory for Comparative Social Research

(EUROLAB), GESIS, Cologne


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Current trends in the world of (flexible) work

- a sociological perspective

De-standardization, De-regulation, Flexibilization,

Expansion of Non-Standard Employment

wage-labourbasedFordismassocial/employmentstandard

finance-driven Post-Fordism

Innovations (ICT), Globalization, Policydecisions, Value change

Will therebe a newsociallyinclusiveemploymentstandard?

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

EU Directives to establish this new socially inclusive employment standard:

  • The European Social Partners ETUC, UNICE and CEEP developed a framework agreement on fixed-term work put into effect by COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC :

  • purpose: to improve the quality of fixed-term work

  • by a) applying the principle of non-discrimination and b) measures to prevent abuse

  •  What are the social differences between fixed-term and permanent work, so that there is a need for non-discrimination?

  • What social problems are caused by fixed-term work?

  • How can social inclusion be achieved?

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

EU Directive on fixed-term work

From the preamble of COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC :

“They [the social partners] also recognize

that fixed-term employment contracts respond,

in certain circumstances,

to the needs of both employers and workers.”

?

 Why should employees prefer to have a fixed-term rather than a permanent contract? Or does this mean they prefer it over being unemployed?

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

What Sociologists think:

flexploitation

The rise in fixed-termworkhasobjectiveandsubjective, individual andsocietalconsequences:

loss of solidarity

precarity

corrosion of character

In-work Poverty

Inequality

Anxieties about future

anomie

Depressions

feelings of replaceability

growing distrust

Insecurity

chains of uncertainty

loss of long-term orientation

Zygmunt Bauman

Pierre Bourdieu

Richard Sennett

Ulrich Beck

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Incidence of fixed-term/temporary employment in Europe (in % of all employees, 15-74 years), source: Eurostat

ImplementationofDirective99/70/EC

on fixed-termemployment

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

  • What is behind this slowly rising overall trend and the country differences?

  • 1. Who is doing fixed-term work?

    • groups that are relatively new on the labour markets: very young and older persons and women?

    • or vulnerable workers who can‘t find other job?

    •  social structure of fixed-term work: gender, age and education

  • 2. What changes occuredwithin the social structure of fixed-term workers in the last years?

    • does it become more gendered, are increasingly young people holding fixed-term contracts or more and more the low-skilled?

    •  looking at trends

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Compositionoffixed-termwork: gender, ageandeducation, source: Eurostat

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Changes in the socio-demographic composition of fixed-term employment from 1998-2008 (%), source: Eurostat

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

  • Social Problems of Fixed-term Work

  • 2 Examples:

  • Povertyaseconomicinsecurity

  • Anomie atcountrylevel

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Poverty rates for permanent and temporary work, 27 European countries, 18-64yrs

Source: vanLancker 2013, based on EU-SILC 2008 data

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Extracts from multilevel logistic regressions on the risk of poverty (odds ratios)

Source: vanLancker 2013, based on EU-SILC 2008 data

* p<0.05,

** p<0.01,

*** p<0.001.

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Extracts from Correspondence Analyses on anomie and non-standard employment at country level

Source: Fritz 2013

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Extracts from Correspondence Analyses on anomie and non-standard employment at country level

Source: Fritz 2013

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


Fixed term work in europe trends and social impacts

Conclusions

  • Fixed-termworkisespeciallyproblematicfor: families, lowereducatedpersonsand in countries withdominanceof male breadwinner model, i.e. South European countries

  • DIRECTIVE 1999/70/EC on fixed-term work does not solve this problems, thus it doesn’t contribute to a new socially inclusive employment standard

  • otherformsof flexible work (aspart-time work) cancontributemoreto a newstandardas also socialpolicymeasureslikeminimumincomesandwages etc. whichprotectespeciallythemost vulnerable

  • More information in ourbook:

  • Max Koch & Martin Fritz „Non-Standard Employment in Europe. Paradigms, PrevalenceandPolicy Responses.“

Fritz: Fixed-Term Work in Europe


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