Chapter 9 development
Download
1 / 28

Chapter 9: Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 84 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 9: Development. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. Development. Process of improving material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge & technology More developed countries (MDCs) Lesser developed countries (LDCs).

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 9: Development' - aneko


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 9 development

Chapter 9: Development

The Cultural Landscape:

An Introduction to Human Geography


Development
Development

Process of improving material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge & technology

More developed countries (MDCs)

Lesser developed countries (LDCs)


Why does development vary between countries
Why Does Development Vary Between Countries?

  • Economic indicators of development

    • Human Development Index (HDI)

      • 4 factors to assess development:

        • Economic = (1) GDP per capita

        • Social = (2) literacy & (3) amount of education

        • Demographic = (4) life expectancy

      • Gross Domestic Product per capita

        • U.S. = $45,000



Why does development vary among countries
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Economic indicators of development

    • Types of jobs

      • Primary sector

      • Secondary sector

      • Tertiary sector


Why does development vary among countries1
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Economic indicators of development

    • Productivity

      • Measured by value added per capita

      • MDCs are more productive than LDCs


Why does development vary among countries2
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Economic indicators of development

    • Consumer goods

      • Technology

      • Transportation

      • Communication



Why does development vary among countries3
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Social indicators of development

    • Education & literacy

      • Literacy rate

        • Over 98% in MDC’s

        • Less than 60% in LDC’s



Why does development vary among countries4
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Social indicators of development

    • Health & welfare

      • Diet (adequate calories)

      • Access to health care


Why does development vary among countries5
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

  • Demographic indicators of development

    • Life expectancy

      • MDCs: life expectancy in the 70s

      • LDCs: life expectancy in the 60s


Why does development vary among countries6
Why Does Development Vary Among Countries?

Figure 9-26

  • Demographic indicators of development

    • Other demographic indicators:

      • Infant mortality

      • Natural increase

      • Crude birth rate


Where are mdcs and ldcs distributed
Where are MDCs and LDCs Distributed?

  • More developed regions

    • North America & Europe

    • Other MDCs with high HDI = Russia, Japan, Australia, & New Zealand


Where are mdcs and ldcs distributed1
Where are MDCs and LDCs Distributed?

  • Less developed regions

    • Latin America = highest HDI among LDCs

    • SW Asia, SE Asia, Central Asia = similar HDI

    • S Asia & sub-Saharan Africa = low levels of development


Where does level of development vary by gender
Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender?

  • Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)

    • Compare level of women’s development to both sexes

    • 4 measures:

      • Per capita female incomes as % of male per capita incomes

      • # of females enrolled in school compared to # of males

      • % of literate females to literate males

      • Life expectancy of females to males




Where does level of development vary by gender1
Where Does Level of Development Vary by Gender?

  • Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)

    • Compares decision-making capabilities of men & women in politics & economics

    • Economic & political indicators:

      • Per capita female incomes as % of male per capita incomes

      • % of technical & professional jobs held by women

      • % of administrative jobs held by women

      • % of women holding national office




Why do ldcs face obstacles to development
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • Barriers to protect local business

    • Tariffs, quotas, & restricting # of importers

  • 2 problems:

    • Protects inefficient businesses

    • Develop large bureaucracies

  • Development through self-sufficiency

    • Characteristics:

      • Pace = modest; distribution = even


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development1
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • International trade approach

    • 4 Asian Dragons

      • S Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong

    • Petroleum-Rich Arabian Peninsula States

    • Most commonly selected path by end of 20th c.

    • Evidence = international trade is more effective

    • Problems

    • Triumphs

Figure 9-27


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development2
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

Figure 9-30

  • International trade approach triumphs

    • World Trade Organization

    • Foreign direct investment


Why do ldcs face obstacles to development3
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • Financing development

    • LDC’s need $ for development

    • 2 sources:

      • Loans: World Bank & International Monetary Fund

      • FDI via transnational corporations

    • Structural Adjustment Programs

      • Sets economic goals & strategies to achieve them



Why do ldcs face obstacles to development4
Why Do LDCs Face Obstacles to Development?

  • Fair trade approach

    • Products made/traded in way that protects workers & small businesses in LDCs

    • 2 sets of standards

      • Fair trade producer standards

      • Fair trade worker standards

    • Producers & workers usually earn more

    • Consumers usually pay higher prices



ad