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What You Need to Know: Regulations and Guidelines for Deploying Industrial Robotics in the Workplace Denise R. Hearn Assistant Professor Millersville University Millersville, Pennsylvania Dr. John R. Wright, Jr., CSIT Associate Professor Millersville University

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slide1

What You Need to Know:

Regulations and Guidelines for

Deploying Industrial Robotics in the Workplace

slide2
Denise R. Hearn

Assistant Professor

Millersville University

Millersville, Pennsylvania

Dr. John R. Wright, Jr., CSIT

Associate Professor

Millersville University

Millersville, Pennsylvania

Deploying Industrial Robotics

slide3

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
  • Sources of Robotic Hazards
  • Accident Types
  • Guarding Methods
  • Installation, Maintenance, and Programming
  • Worker Training and Supervision
  • Summary
  • Conclusion
slide4

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Robots defined.
      • Industrial robots.
      • Devices/sensors required for performance.
      • Sequencing/monitoring communication interfaces.
    • Common robotic functions.
      • Materials handling, assembly, welding, painting, etc.
      • Perform unsafe, hazardous, repetitive tasks.
slide5

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Shift in U.S. manufacturing to automation.
    • Innovation and acceptance of robotic technology.
    • Potential exposure to severe/fatal accidents.
    • Recommendations for safe operation.
slide6

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Guidelines for Robotics Safety
      • “Both state and federal regulations deal with industrial robotics safety, including the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA).”
      • These guidelines are aimed at three aspects of the robotic work area:
        • Keeping unauthorized persons outside of the work cell.
        • Protecting workers from fixed machinery.
        • And protecting workers from the robot itself.
          • (Fuller, 1999).

http://www.kawasakirobotics.com/products/?page=robotMseries

slide7

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Guidelines for Robotics Safety(continued)
      • These regulations apply only to the normal operation of the robot
        • (Fuller, 1999).
      • Abnormal operation includes:
        • Programming.
        • Maintenance.

http://www.motoman.com/products/worlds/plasmaworld.htm

slide8

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Guidelines for Robotics Safety (continued)
      • “Recent studies in Sweden and Japan indicate that many robot accidents do not occur under normal operating conditions but rather during programming, adjustment, testing, cleaning, inspection, and repair periods. During many of these operations, the operator, programmer or corrective maintenance worker may temporarily be within the robot work envelope while power is available to moveable elements of the robot system.”
        • STD 01-12-002 – pub 8-1.3 – Guidelines For Robotics Safety

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide9

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Sources for Guidelines/Recommendations:
      • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
        • Guidelines for Robotics Safety, STD 01-12-002.
        • Industrial Robots and Robot System Safety – OSHA Technical Manual, TED 1-0.15A.
slide10

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Sources for Guidelines/Recommendations (continued):
      • National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
        • Preventing the Injury of Workers by Robots, PUB No. 85-103.
slide11

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Sources for Guidelines/Recommendations (continued):
      • American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
        • Industrial Robots and Robot Systems – Safety Requirements, ANSI/RIZ R15.06-1999.
        • Manufacturing Systems/Cells, ANSI B11.20.
      • International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
        • Safety of Integrated Manufacturing Systems, ISO 11161.
slide12

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Introduction
    • Guidelines/Recommendations Summarized
      • Sources of robotic hazards.
      • Accident types.
      • Guarding methods and control devices.
      • Installation, maintenance, and programming.
      • Training and supervision of workers.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide13

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Sources of Robotic Hazards
    • Human error.
    • Control error.
    • Unauthorized access.
    • Mechanical failures.
    • Environmental sources.
    • Power systems.
    • Improper installation.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide14

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Accident Types
    • Impact.
    • Crushing.
    • Trapping.
    • Mechanical part injuries.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide15

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Guarding Methods
    • Interlocked barrier guards.
    • Fixed barrier guards.
    • Awareness barrier devices.
    • Presence sensing devices.
    • Emergency stops.
    • Audible and visible warning systems.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide16

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Guarding Methods (continued)
    • Interlocked barrier guards.
      • Physical barrier around robot work envelope incorporating gates equipped with interlocks which will stop automatic operations when opened.
    • Fixed barrier guards.
      • A permanent fence requiring tools for removal.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide17

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Guarding Methods (continued)
    • Awareness barrier devices.
      • Defines a safety perimeter intended to prevent inadvertent entry into the work envelope.
    • Presence sensing devices.
      • Detect a person stepping into a hazardous area near a robot.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide18

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Guarding Methods (continued)
    • Emergency stops.
      • Dangerous robot movement is arrested by dynamic braking systems rather than simple power cut-off to counteract the effect of robot inertia.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide19

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Guarding Methods (continued)
    • Audible and visible warning systems.
      • Not acceptable safeguard methods but may be used to enhance effectiveness of positive safeguards.
    • Control devices.
      • Located outside the robot work envelope.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide20

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Guarding Methods (continued)
    • Control devices.
      • Photoelectric (light field).
      • Radio-frequency.
      • Electromechanical (contact bar).
      • Pullback.
      • Restraint devices.
      • Safety trip.
      • Two-hand controls.
      • Gates.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide21

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Installation, Maintenance and Programming
    • Installed in accordance with manufacturer’s guidelines and applicable codes.
    • Verify compatibility with environmental conditions.
    • Power to robot conforms to manufacturer’s specifications.
    • Robot is secured to prevent vibration movement and tip over.
    • No additional hazards are created.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide22

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Worker Training and Supervision
      • Managers.
      • Operators.
      • Engineers.
      • Programmers.
      • Maintenance personnel.
      • Bystanders.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide23

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Worker Training and Supervision (continued)
    • Safe operation.
    • Maintenance.
    • Emergency procedures.
      • Shut down controls.
      • Inspection of safeguards.
    • Disciplinary action.
    • Working with teams.
    • Proper attire.

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1703

slide24

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Summary
    • Review guidelines from OSHA/NIOSH/ANSI/ISO.
    • Identify risks associated with robotics.
    • Reduce hazards inherent to robotics.
    • Reduce risk of accidents and injuries.
slide25

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • Conclusion
    • Keeping well informed of these guidelines and risks signifies employers’ commitment to the safety and health of their employees.
slide26

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • References
    • American National Standards Institute. (1999). ANSI/RIA R15.06 – Industrial Robots and Robot Systems – Safety Requirements.
    • Fuller, J. L. (1999). Robotics: Introduction, programming, and projects (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
    • Rehg, J. A. (2003). Introduction to robotics in CIM systems (5th ed). Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.
    • U.S. Department of Health: National Institute for Occupational Safety Health. (1984). Publication No. 85-103 – Preventing the Injury of Workers and Robots. Accessed online (November, 2004): http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/85-103.html.
    • US Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Heath Administration. (1987). STD 01-12-002 - PUB 8-1.3 - Guidelines For Robotics Safety. Accessed online (October, 2005): http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=170.
    • US Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Heath Administration. (1999). TED 1-0.15A, Section IV – Chapter 4 – Industrial Robots and Robot System Safety. Accessed online (November, 2004): http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iv/otm_iv_4.html.
slide27

Deploying Industrial Robotics

  • OSHA Connection
    • http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/robotics/index.html
  • “Presentation Handout”
    • http://muweb.millersville.edu/~jwright/
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