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PIA 2528 Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework. Review- Five Themes. Democracy Governance Local Government Civil Society Institutional State. Quote of the Week. George Orwell, Burmese Days

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PIA 2528

Civil Society:

A Conceptual Framework

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Review- Five Themes

  • Democracy

  • Governance

  • Local Government

  • Civil Society

  • Institutional State

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Quote of the Week

  • George Orwell, Burmese Days

    • "Why is it you are always abusing the pukka sahibs as you call them. They are the salt of the earth. Consider the great administrators who have made British India what it is.”

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Discussion of Themes

  • Orwell, Burmese Days

    • Lindsay Wood

    • Laura Meixell

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Madison, Hamilton and Jay and Civil Society

  • Federalist Papers

    • Fear of Populism

    • Minority rights

    • Shifting majorities

    • The problem with majorities

    • Tyranny

    • Factions

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Polyarchy: The Conceptual Framework

  • Competitive Pluralism

  • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues

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Polyarchy: Six Principles

  • Interest Group Liberalism

  • Problem of zero-sum game

  • Civil Society as organizational not individual or the mass.

  • The need for apathy

  • Institutional structures: Checks and balances

  • Constitutional vs. social stability

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Civil Society: The Base Point

  • Civil Society- Networks of organizations, groups and individuals pursuing socio-economic interests

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Themes- Civil Society

  • Wenfu- “Peddler’s Family”

    • Chunwrong Chen

    • Ali Ashraf

    • Lindsay Wood

  • Isabel Allenda- “Clarissa”

    • Anh Ninh

    • Stephenie Schell

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    Review: Civil SocietyThe Nature of the Beast:

    • Non-Profits

    • Not for Profits

    • Private Voluntary Organizations

    • Community Based Organizations

    • Civics

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    Nature of the Beast-Continued

    • Foundations

    • Associations

    • Interest Groups

    • Quangos

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    Nature of the Beast

    • The University of Pittsburgh is a Non-Profit

    • They are not always small

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    Five Caveats: Civil Society Groups

    • Usually excludes “for profits”- issue of contractors

    • Both International and Local

    • Internationals are not universally loved

    • Very often internationals are religious or charity based

    • Focus has been primarily on relief rather than development or civil society goals

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    Theme: Institutional Development and History of State Civil Society

    • Allen, “Plain Tales,” and “Dark Continent”

      • Sara Tilka

      • Stephenie Schell

      • Ali Ashraf

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    Types of “Development” NGOs

    1. Philanthropy

    2. Humanitarian Assistance

    War, Drought, Agricultural Failure (WWI)

    Relief and Welfare Societies- Disaster-

    3. Populist based development agencies (national)

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    Types of “Development” NGOs

    4. Grassroots associations (local or village based): Focus on Rural Development

    5. Advocacy groups: Democracy and Governance

    6. Public Service Contractors and Grantees

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    International NGOs- Weaknesses

    1. Lack of local legitimacy

    2. Donor driven

    3. Inefficiency

    4. Amateurism- leadership and continuity problems

    5. Staffing problems

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    International NGOs- Weaknesses

    6. Self-serving- own objectives: Faith Based

    7. Fixation on projects- Problems of replication

    8. Lack of perceived accountability

    9. Learning problems/lack of institutional memory

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    International NGOs- Weaknesses

    10. Tensions with government institutions- Politically threatening

    11. Ties with existing local elites

    12. Inability of humanitarian organizations to transfer to new development orientation

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    • Ten Minutes

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    Public Private Partnerships

    The Twenty-First Century Paradigm

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    Types of Democracy,

    • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism)

      • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy

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    Public-Private Partnerships

    • U.S. Parallel: Western Pennsylvania

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    Understanding the Public Sector of Allegheny County

    Allegheny County is made up of 130 townships and boroughs. Each of these has its own public manager and council. The city of Pittsburgh is part of this mix of local government. Several Thousand non-profits

    Operating Budget for the County for 2003 is $654 million. This budget provides for such services as:

    Children and Youth Services

    Jail/County Police

    Port Authority

    District attorney


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    Demographics of Allegheny County

    • Total population 1,281,666

      • 84% White

      • 12% African American

      • 1.7% Asian

      • 1% Hispanic

      • 1/10 of 1% Native American

      • 18% 65+

      • 6% under 5 years old

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    Public-Private Partnerships

    • Non-Profits Number in W. PA in tens of thousands and

    • deliver up to two-thirds of the social services of the County in several different sectors

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    Public Private Partnerships:The International Context

    Defined: Partnerships (formal or informal) between:

    • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs),

    • Community Based Organizations (CBOs),

    • Governments,

    • Donors (International and Private),

    • Private- Business Sector.

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    Public Private Partnerships

    • Origins- Use in International Development

      a. International Donors- Way of Dealing with Umbrella Grants and implementation of development policies

      b. Accepting donor money means accepting donor principles

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    Public Private Partnerships

    c. Comes out of Structural Adjustment and Policy Reform (re. LDCs)

    d. Seen by some as an alternative to Contracting Out- Others as part of it

    e. Critics see it as detrimental to a market approach to economic change

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    Public Private Partnerships: Characteristics

    a. Targeted at the expansion of Social Capital and Synergy in the promotion of Economic and Social Development

      b. Seeks a holistic or Integrated Approach to Economic and Social Development

      c. Involves informal processes, cultural sensitivities as well as legal norms and contracting principles.

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    Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)

    Supporting Factors in the International Context:

      1. Democratic Governance- private sector and NGOs seen as legitimate actors; transparency, accountability and responsiveness

    2. Rational Government- Merit Principles, anti-corruption environment, acceptance of non-state actors as service deliverers. Contracting Out

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    Public Private Partnerships- Factors

    Factors that Support PPPs 

    3. Decentralization- Subsidiarity: Governance devolved to the lowest levels capable of implementation and contracting out

    4. Legal Frameworks- Acceptance of Contractual Agreement as the basic organizational relationship

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    Public Private Partnerships-Factors

    5. Institutional Norms, Organizational Capacity and regularized principles of inter-organizational interaction. Requires high levels of capacity building

    6. Requires Social and Economic Stability

    7. Organizational flexibility across all sectors

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    Public Private Partnerships- Factors

    8. Social and Institutional Pluralism- win-win rather than zero sum game across social, ethnic, religious and racial groups

    9. Social Networks exist at Grass roots, and intermediate as well as higher levels of government-See diagram

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    The Model:

    • Local Governance and Civil Society

    • Decentralization Diagram

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    Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff,

    Partnership for International Development: Rhetoric or ResultsBoulder, Co.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002

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    Institutional Legacy- Discussion: Huntington, Culture Matters

    • Verona Benjamin (Lead)

    • Ali Ashraf

    • Stephenie Schell

    • Lindsay Wood

    • Anh Ninh

    • Sarah Tylka

    • Chunrong Chen

    • Laura Meixell (Questions to Panel)

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    Case Studies: The Institutional Legacy

    • Africa: “Dark Continent and Europe:” Lord Hailey, Oliver, Picard?

    • Eastern Europe: “Balkan Ghosts:” Kaplan, Glenny

    • Asia- China, Japan and America: Karnow, Kaplan, Storry

    • Latin America: Iberian Heritage (or US): Greene, De Soto

    • Middle East: Ottoman Legacy vs. European Influence: Lerner, Naipaul, Segev

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    • Questions, Comments?

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    Discussion: Next Week

    • Governance Themes:

      • Asia: Huntington, Clash of Civilizations

      • Middle East, Nutting

      • Africa: Picard, Botswana

      • Latin America, Garrity and Picard, Dependency Avoidance