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DNA Section 12–1 This section tells about the experiments that helped scientists discover the relationship between genes and DNA. It also describes the chemical structure of the DNA molecule. Griffith and Transformation What did Frederick Griffith want to learn about bacteria?

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DNA

Section 12–1


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Griffith and Transformation scientists discover the

  • What did Frederick Griffith want to learn about bacteria?

  • He wanted to learn how certain types of bacteria produce pneumonia


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  • a. into_________ coloniesMice injected with bacteria from smooth colonies died.

  • d. Mice injected with a mixture of bacteria from heat-killed smooth colonies and liverough colonies died.


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  • What is transformation? cause of pneumonia was not a chemical poison released by the disease-causing bacteria?

  • It is the process by which one strain of bacteria changes into another.


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Avery and DNA experiments?

  • Is the following sentence true or false?

  • Avery and his colleagues thought that themolecule required in transformation might also be the molecule of the gene.

  • True


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Avery and DNA experiments?

  • Briefly describe how Avery and his group determined which molecule was most important for transformation?

  • They treated the extract of heat-killed bacteria with enzymes that destroyed proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and other molecules, including RNA and DNA.


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Avery and DNA experiments?

  • Briefly describe how Avery and his group determined which molecule was most important for transformation?

  • They treated the extract of heat-killed bacteria with enzymes that destroyed proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and other molecules, including RNA and DNA.


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Avery and DNA experiments?

  • Briefly describe how Avery and his group determined which molecule was most important for transformation?

  • They treated the extract of heat-killed bacteria with enzymes that destroyed proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and other molecules, including RNA and DNA.


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Avery and DNA experiments?

  • Transformation did not occur when _______was destroyed.

  • DNA


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Avery and DNA experiments?

  • What was the conclusion from Avery’s experiments?

  • DNA was the transforming factor.


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The Hershey-Chase Experiment experiments?

  • What is a bacteriophage?

  • It is a virus that infects bacteria


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The Hershey-Chase Experiment experiments?

  • Parts that makes up a bacteriophage are:

  • Protein Coat

  • DNA core


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The Hershey-Chase Experiment experiments?

  • What happens when a bacteriophage infects a bacterial cell?

  • The bacteriophage injects its DNA into the cell. The viral genes act to produce many new bacteriophages, which burst out when the cell splits open.


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The Hershey-Chase Experiment experiments?

  • How would Hershey and Chase learn whether genes were made of protein or DNA?

  • If they could determine which part of the virus entered the infected cell, they would learn whether genes were made of protein or DNA.


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The Hershey-Chase Experiment experiments?

  • The molecule for which phosphorus-32 (32P) is used as a radioactive marker is___.

  • DNA


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The Hershey-Chase Experiment experiments?

  • Is the following sentence true or false?

  • 35S was found in the bacteria, it would mean that the viruses’ DNA had been injected into the bacteria___________.

  • false


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The Hershey-Chase Experiment experiments?

  • What results did Hershey and Chase observe?

  • Nearly all of the radioactivity in the bacteria was from phosphorus, the marker found in DNA.


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The Hershey-Chase Experiment experiments?

  • Hershey and Chase concluded that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was_____.

  • DNA


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The Components and Structure of DNA experiments?

  • List the three critical things that genes were known to do.

  • a. Genes had to carry information from one generation to the next.

  • b. Genes had to determine the heritable characteristics of organisms.

  • c. Genes had to be easily copied.


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The Components and Structure of DNA experiments?

  • Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine are four kinds of _______bases in DNA.

  • nitrogenous


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