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Systems V & V, Quality and Standards Dr Sita Ramakrishnan School CSSE Monash University Test Coverage Criteria based on Data Flow Mechanisms Topics Program Structure Categories of Data Flow Coverage Criteria Data Flow Testing References:

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systems v v quality and standards

Systems V & V, Quality and Standards

Dr Sita Ramakrishnan

School CSSE

Monash University

test coverage criteria based on data flow mechanisms
Test Coverage Criteriabased on Data Flow Mechanisms
  • Topics
    • Program Structure
    • Categories of Data Flow Coverage Criteria
    • Data Flow Testing

References:

      • Peters J F and Pedrycz W,Software Engineering, An Engineering Approach, McGraW Hill, 2000, (Ch.12, Software Testing, pp.437-500)
      • Horgan J.R., London S., Lyu M.R. Achieving software quality with testing coverage measures. IEEE Computer, Sep. 1994: 60-69
      • Other references (books included in the slides, conference & journal papers) given in the handout for the unit

© S Ramakrishnan

program structure
Program Structure
  • Program consists of blocks
  • Block consists of a sequence of statements
  • When a first statement is executed, the following statements are executed in the given order
  • Can be represented by a flow graph

© S Ramakrishnan

testing coverage
Testing Coverage
  • Have looked at testing techniques such as:
    • Black-box testing which includes categories such as:
      • Syntax-driven driven testing – where specification is described by a certain grammar. -> Generate test cases such that each production rule is applied/tested at least once
      • Decision-table based testing – may suit if requirements have been written as if-then rules
      • Cause-effect graphs in functional testing – addresses limitations of decision table where all inputs are treated separately although real world problem demand another approach. Boundary-value analysis & equivalence class partition also assume the independence of input
    • Structural testing – includes basic categories such as statement, branch & path coverage tests

© S Ramakrishnan

testing coverage5
Testing Coverage
  • More on Black-box Testing with Cause-Effect Graphs:
    • Cause-effect graphs capture relationships between specific combination of inputs (causes) and outputs (effects).
      • Helps avoid combinatorial explosion associated with decision table approach
    • Causes and Effects represented as nodes of a

cause-effect graph – includes intermediate

nodes to link cause & effects in forming logical

expressions

© S Ramakrishnan

testing coverage cause effect graphs
Testing Coverage – Cause-Effect Graphs
  • Eg. of an ATM transaction system.Causes and Effected listed as:
  • Causes: C1 : Command is credit, C2: Command is Debit

C3: Account No. is valid, C4: Trans. Amount is valid

  • Effects: E1: Print “invalid command”, E2: “invalid acct no”

E3: “debit no. not valid”, E4 & E5: debit & credit a/c respectively

or

C1

E1

and

C2

E2

and

C3

E3

and

C4

and

E4

Cause-effect graph

E5

© S Ramakrishnan

testing coverage cause effect graphs7
Testing Coverage – Cause-Effect Graphs
  • 4 input (Cause) nodes & 5 output (Effect) nodes
  • the node in between input (C ) & output (E ) realise “and” or “or” operators
  • Processing node used in cause-effect graph – and, or, negation, and with processing node,
    • “and” - effect occurs if all inputs are true
    • “or” - effect occurs if at least one input is true
    • “negation” – effect occurs if inputs are false
  • Cause-Effect graph helps determine the corresponding test cases

© S Ramakrishnan

testing coverage cause effect graphs8
Testing Coverage – Cause-Effect Graphs
  • Eg. To determine test cases from C-E Graph
    • Want to find out the causes for E3 say given:

C2

C3

C4

C1 C2 C3 C4

X 1 1 0

X= (don’t care condition)

1 = true, 0 = false

E3 does not depend on Cause (C1)

and

E3

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • Why data flow orientation in testing?
    • Data structures and their usage are essential elements of any code and hence need to be taken into account when looking at software testing
  • Main categories of data flow coverage criteria
    • basic block
    • all-use
    • c-use
    • d-use
    • du-path

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria10
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria

In a piece of Java code: Eg

sum = 0; Definitions shown in blue

prod = 0;

i = 1;

while (i <= n)

{ sum+ = i; basic block shown inpurple

prod* = i; ->prod* = i an eg of “use”

i++ -> i++ also an eg of “use”

} if “use” appears in a computational

if (k == 0) print_results1; expression, the pair is c-use,

if in predicate, resulting pair is p-use

if (k == 1) compute;

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria11
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • Definition – value stored in a memory location
    • Defined (d) – data structure is defined, created or initialized

when it is given a valid state

  • Use – value fetched from a memory location
  • C-use – used in computation or output statement &

- associated with each node

  • P-use – used in a predicate& associated with each edge

C-uses

Decision

Basic Block

All-uses

P-uses

Hierarchy of different dataflow

coverage criteria

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria12
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • Def-use Graph
    • Obtained from the flow graph
    • Associate with each node the sets
      • C-use (i) - variables which have global c-uses in block i
      • Def (i) - variables with global definitions in block i
    • Associate with each edge (i,j)
      • P-use (i,j) – variables which have p-uses on edge (i,j)
    • Define sets of nodes
      • dpu(x,i) - edges (j,k) such that x Є p-use(j,k) and there is a def-clear path w.r.t. x from i to (j,k)
      • dcu(x,i) - nodes j such that x Є c-use(j) and there is a def-clear path w.r.t. x from i to j

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria13
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • Def-use Graph Paths – Definitions
  • Complete path – path from entry node to exit node
  • Def-clear path w.r.t. x from node i to node j and

from node i to edge nm , j

a path (i, n1,n2, …n , j) containing no definitions or undefinitions of x in nodes n1, n2, ….n

m

m

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria14
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • Data flow coverage criteria –
  • The family of data flow testing criteria is based on requiring that –
    • The test data execute definition-clear paths from each node containing a global definition of a variable to specified nodes containing global c-uses and edge containing p-uses of that variable
  • For each variable definition, data flow testing criteria require that
    • All/some definition-clear paths w.r.t. that variable from the node containing the definition to all/some of that uses/c-uses/p-uses reachable by some such paths be executed

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria15
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • All-def criterion
    • If variable x has a global definition in node i, the all-defs

criterion requires the test data to exercise some path which goes from i to some node or edge at which the value assigned to x in node i is used

  • All-uses criterion
    • If variable x has a global definition in node i, the all-uses

criterion requires the test data to exercise at least one path which goes from i to each node or edge at which the value assigned to x in node i is used

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria16
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • All-DU-paths criterion
    • If variable x has a global definition in node i, the all-DU-paths criterion requires the test data to exercise all paths which go from i to each node and edge at which the value assigned to x in node i is used
  • Other DF testing criteria
    • All-p-uses
    • All-c-uses
    • All-p-uses/some-c-uses
    • All-c-uses/some-p-uses

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria17
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria

Hierarchy of data flow coverage criteria

all-paths

all-du-paths

all-uses

all-c-uses-some-p-uses all-p-uses-some-c-uses

all-c-uses all-defs all-p-uses

all-edges

all-nodes

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria18
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • Interprocedural Data Flow Testing
    • Most df testing methods deal with dependencies

that exist within a procedure – intra procedural aspect

    • Data dependencies may also exist between procedures
    • Requires analysis of flow of data across these procedure/module boundaries

© S Ramakrishnan

test coverage based on data flow coverage criteria19
Test coverage based on Data Flow Coverage Criteria
  • Homework: Closer look at Table 12.6 Coverage Criteria on P.479 in Peters & Pedrycz text (see slide 1 for Reference details)

© S Ramakrishnan

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