2. History and structure of the ILO. The ILODeclaration of PhiladelphiaTripartite Structure1969 Nobel Peace PrizeA specialised Agency of the UN. 3. TRIPARTISM IN THE ILO. 4. The Decent Work Agenda. The ILO's Primary Objective Today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity.The Decent Work Agenda has been adopted by the AU, UN General Assembly, EC and ECOSOC.
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1. 1 ILO AND THE DECENT WORK AGENDA
Director, ILO Subregional Office for Southern Africa
(Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe)
2. 2 History and structure of the ILO
3. 3 TRIPARTISM IN THE ILO
4. 4 The Decent Work Agenda The ILO’s Primary Objective Today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity.
The Decent Work Agenda has been adopted by the AU, UN General Assembly, EC and ECOSOC
5. 5 ILO 4 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES Promotion of standards and fundamental principles and rights at work
Creation of employment
Strengthening of social protection
SAFETY & PROTECTION
Strengthening of social dialogue
VOICE & DIALOGUE
= DECENT WORK
9. 9 Strategic Objective 4:
Strengthening social dialogue among government, employers and workers through consultation, negotiation and information sharing.
10. 10 In Summary Decent work encompasses respect for basic rights, access to employment, safe and healthy working conditions, and social security.
Decent work comes about through social dialogue.
Social Dialogue is both a means and an end.
11. 11 Decent Work Country Programmes (DWCPs)
The DWCP is the integrated expression of the ILO’s contribution and support to decent work as a national objective in every member state.
The DWCPs are developed in line with national development priorities, AU Plan of Action, MDGs and the CCA/UNDAF processes.
12. 12 Status of Agricultural Workers - an Overview Waged Agricultural Workers…450 million, the largest labour force on earth
Of the 246 million children who go to work 70% are in agriculture
Out of a total of 335,000 fatal workplace accidents worldwide, there are some 170,000 deaths among agricultural workers mostly women and children
Each year 22 000 children are killed on the job , most in agriculture
Agriculture is ranked as one of the most hazardous industries together with mining and construction
7 million agricultural workers have died from AIDS since 1985 in the 25 hardest hit countries in Africa
13. 13 Comparing the ideal situation and the situation on the ground we can identify Decent Work Deficits
This group suffers higher incidences of poverty and hunger
Economic pressures are eroding protection levels in terms of wages levels, job security,health, safety and environmental standards and social protection …Agricultural Workers and their contribution to sustainable agriculture and rural development, FAO,ILO,IUF
14. 14 Decent Work Deficits …cont. Decent work deficits are pervasive in the agricultural sector. They are expressed in
the widespread denial of rights at work,
in poor quality employment and high levels of unemployment,
in unsafe working conditions and lack of income security,
and finally in the inadequate representation of agricultural workers in the social dialogue which WOULD improve their working lives.
15. 15 The summary of Decent Work Deficits (in 4 ILO Strategic Objectives) Rights deficit: The informal economy is where the workers' rights are in greatest deficit in terms of freedom of association, collective bargaining, forced labour and discrimination at work. There exists the “rights” gap due to inappropriate or inapplicable labour legislation.
Employment deficit: In the absence of employment opportunities in the formal economy, less productive and less remunerative and own account work in the informal economy increases, during this process, survival jobs manifest themselves, bringing erosion of all forms to human dignity.
16. 16 The summary of Decent Work Deficits (in 4 ILO Strategic Objectives cont… Social protection deficit:
Insecurity of work, income and absence of protection at workplace
Low income and productivity forces people to work with serious occupational safety and hazards
HIV/AIDs, The pandemic has resulted in employment discrimination, social exclusion, gender-related inequalities and child labour. It impacts negatively on employment as it affects people in the most productive age groups (15-49). It results in low productivity and depleted human capital. It has challenged social security systems and threatened occupation safety and health among certain groups at risk such as migrant workers and their families and workers
Lack of benefits from social protection schemes - this has been further compounded by the problem of compliance and governance in terms of contribution to the social security/protection schemes, due to adverse working conditions.
17. 17 The summary of Decent Work Deficits (in 4 ILO Strategic Objectives cont… Representational deficit:
Rural agriculture workers are excluded from or under-represented in social dialogue institutions and processes due to the absence of employer-employee relations at work and also due to denial of the rights to organize resulting from temporary nature of work.
18. 18 Agriculture and Basic Rights at work
The right to join and/or form independent and democratic workers' organizations of one's own choosing is a cornerstone of the ILO's stance on social justice.
Already in 1921 the ILO adopted a Convention extending to agricultural workers the same rights of association as for industrial workers.
For agricultural workers, numerous obstacles remain.
19. 19 The Challenges In many cases, labour laws are not applied because employers and workers are unfamiliar with the details of the law, application is found to be impractical in agricultural enterprises or enforcement is weak. - For example, exclusions based on the size of an undertaking or on the contractual status of the worker are common
Trade union organizations are generally weak in rural areas, with little more than 2 to 7% of the workforce organized, with some exceptions as in Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe.
Collective bargaining is often limited to large plantations. Seasonal, migrant and casual labour processes,
and the added constraints of high illiteracy levels, ignorance of workers' rights, and isolation;
all these render the task of organizing among rural workers particularly difficult.
20. 20 But all is not lost!!! ILO tripartite bodies have consistently recalled the need to apply in practice basic labour rights in rural areas and strengthen rural workers' organizations.
21. 21 Organizing …. in Rural Areas Addressing the Decent Work Deficits A tool for archiving sustainable livelihood, development and inevitably reduce poverty; a way of mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS
It is in the interest of governments too;
It promotes participatory/good governance
Contributes to the eradication of poverty (MDG I)
Implementation of the AU action plan on poverty alleviation (Ouaga AU Heads of State Special Summit on Poverty reduction)
22. 22 And the benefits of Social Dialogue social dialogue is the means by which workers, employers and their representatives engage in debate and interchange on the means to achieve this. Employment creation is the essential instrument for raising living standards and widening access to incomes
Social dialogue echoes the needs and aspirations of its constituents. Its relevance depends on whether all segments of society can make their voices heard
23. 23 THANK YOU
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION
Sub-Regional Office for Southern Africa (SRO-Harare)
8 Arundel Office Park, Norfolk Road, Mt. Pleasant,
P.O. Box 210, Harare, Zimbabwe
Telephones: (263-4) 369805-12
Fax: (263-4) 369813-4
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]