Stuff you need to know…. Genetics. Meiosis- cell division that forms gametes (sex cells sperm or egg ) Will form 4 genetically different cells Haploid- 1 copy of the chromosomes (gametes), human haploid #= 23
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Gregor Mendel- Father of Modern genetics, known for his work with pea plants
Round (R) is dominant over wrinkled (r) seeds. Cross 2 heterozygous pea plants for seed shape.
Dad is heterozygous and mom is homozygous recessive. What are the chances their offspring will express the dominant trait?
*because any gene on the Y chromosome will always affect males & only males, these problems only discuss genes on the X chromosome
*females have 2 X chromosomes & males have 1 therefore, males are more likely to exhibit recessive phenotypes from sex-linked genes
·EVOLUTION: cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population
(“CHANGE OVER TIME”)
·FITNESS: refers to traits and behaviors of organisms that enable them to survive and reproduce
~based on variations randomly inherited (mutation & meiosis)
Not all organisms can survive
Overproduction occurs in nature
Variation occurs in all populations
Variations are inherited
Organisms with favorable variations survive and reproduce
Populations as a whole become FIT = evolved!
Changes in the gene pool (# or % of “A” allele vs “a” allele) of a small population due to chance; REDUCES VARIATION
-Bottleneck Effect: results from drastic decrease in population size
-Founder Effect: few individuals in a population colonize a new habitat
The origin of new species (the appearance of new species is the source of biological diversity)
Energy flows through an ecosystem (a section of the biosphere) from the sun, to producers, to consumers
IN ONE DIRECTION!!!
Fossils-Any preserved evidence of life from a past geological age (ex: impressions & remains of organisms embedded in stratified rocks; mineralized remains of an animal or plant
Fossils include shells, imprints, burrows, and organically-produced chemicals. The oldest fossils are of bacteria (prokarytotes) & they are 3.8 billion years old.