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Health Occupations. Muscular System – Unit 2. Muscular Contraction. Occurs through a chain of molecular actions Sliding Filament Theory Muscle cells use glycogen to produce energy used to convert ADP to ATP

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Health occupations

Health Occupations

Muscular System – Unit 2


Muscular contraction

Muscular Contraction

  • Occurs through a chain of molecular actions

  • Sliding Filament Theory

    • Muscle cells use glycogen to produce energy used to convert ADP to ATP

    • Stimulus to contract causes the ATP cycle to combine proteins actin & myosin into actomyosin

    • Calcium is needed for reaction to work


Sliding filament theory cont

Sliding Filament Theory Cont.

  • Lactic acid is produced from glycogen metabolism and is converted to water and carbon dioxide if oxygen is present

  • If oxygen is in short supply, lactic acid builds up and soreness occurs

  • Heat is also produced as a byproduct


Health occupations

Oxygen

Metabolism

Muscle

glycogen

CO2 + H20

Lactic acid

HEAT

If lactic acid builds

Up = soreness

Energy released

Energy

released

ADP – Adenosine

diphosphate

ATP – adenosine

triphosphate

Stimulus to contract-

Energy from ADP/ATP

Cycle, plus Ca++, changes actin +

Myosin = Actomyosin

Energy

released

Phosphate

Calcium

Myosin

Actin

Muscle contraction

Actomyosin


Types of muscle contraction

Types of Muscle Contraction

  • Strength depends on the strength of nerve impulses received from the brain

  • ALL OR NONE LAW OF SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION

    - EACH FIBER CONTRACTS COMPLETELY OR NOT AT ALL!

  • However, not all muscle contractions are the same


Types of muscle contraction1

Types of Muscle Contraction

  • Isotonic contraction

    • Muscle shortening that produces movement

  • Isometric contraction

    • Muscle shortening that does NOT produce movement (like pushing against wall)

  • Tonus

    • State of partial contraction that maintains posture

  • Twitch

    • Quick, jerky contraction of a whole muscle from one stimulus


Types of muscle contraction2

Types of Muscle Contraction

  • Tetanic contraction

    • More sustained than twitch, caused by many stimuli in rapid succession

  • Tetany

    • Continued contraction of a skeletal muscle

  • Fibrillation

    • Uncoordinated contraction of muscle fibers

  • Convulsions

    • Contractions of groups of muscles in an abnormal manner

  • Spasms

    • Involuntary, sudden, & prolonged contractions


Assessment

Assessment

  • General inspection

    • Asymmetry

    • Deformity

    • Swelling

    • Bruising

  • Systemic movement

    • Assess for weakness

  • Reflex

    • Assess neurological functioning


Assessment cont

Assessment cont

  • Protractor

    • Measures joint ROM

  • Blood tests

    • Measures enzymes indicating muscular damage (esp heart attacks)

  • Electromyography tests

    • Tests individual muscles with needles inserted into muscle

  • Muscle biopsy

    • Take a slice of muscle to assess for tissue disorders


Disorders of muscle system

Disorders of muscle system

  • Muscle cramp

    • Sudden involuntary contraction of muscle producing pain

      • Usually in legs or feet

      • Causes

        • Exertion

        • Unknown

      • Treatment

        • Stretching

        • Gentle pressure


Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy

  • Group of genetic diseases involving painless, gradual atrophy of muscle tissue

  • Mild to severe sx

  • No cure

  • Treatment

    • Meds to slow progression

    • Braces

    • Corrective surgery

    • Gene therapy


Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia

  • Group of muscle disorders affecting tendons, ligaments, & fibrous tissues

  • Pain commonly in neck, shoulders, thorax, lower back, thighs

  • NO INFLAMMATION

  • Pain & tenderness after exposure to cold, damp, illness, minor trauma

  • More common in women

  • Treatment

    • Decrease stress

    • Rest, heat, massage

    • Therapy to stretch muscles, exercise


Gangrene

Gangrene

  • Caused by microorganism

  • Bacteria enter muscle tissue that has died & destroys surrounding living tissue

  • Extremities most often affected, but may see it occur in gallbladder or intestines

  • Treatment

    • Remove dead tissue

    • Antibiotics

    • Meds against toxins


Hernia

Hernia

  • Abnormal protrusion of a body part into another body area

  • Common – intestine through abd wall

  • Results from weak abd muscles

  • Treatment

    • Bracing

    • Surgery

    • Meds


Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis

  • Condition in which nerve impulses are not transmitted normally from the brain to the muscles

  • Unknown cause

  • Autoimmune disorder

  • Muscle weakness in different body areas that eventually become severe

  • Remission may occur

  • No cure

  • Treatment – maintain life support


Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis

  • Viral infection resulting in paralysis

  • No cure

  • Vaccination prevents

  • Treatment

    • Symptom relief


Muscle sprain

Muscle Sprain

  • Traumatic injury to tendons, muscles, or ligaments of a joint

  • Pain & swelling

  • Treatment

    • Heat/cold application

    • Rest

    • Ultrasound


Pes panus

Pes Panus

  • Flat foot

  • Fallen arches

  • Congenital or weak foot muscles

  • Causes extreme pain

  • Treatment

    • Corrective shoes

    • Massage

    • Exercise


Tetanus

Tetanus

  • Lockjaw

  • Caused by bacteria

  • Muscle spasms may be severe & can result in death

  • No cure but vaccine

  • Treatment

    • Prevent complications of muscles spasms

    • Life support


Trichinosis

Trichinosis

  • Parasitic infection caused by eating undercooked pork

  • Parasites form cysts in muscle tissues

    • Diaphragm

    • Chest muscles

  • Pain, tenderness, fatigue

  • Can be fatal if it affects the brain or heart


Body mechanics

Body Mechanics

  • Careful & efficient use of body

    • Good posture

    • Balance

    • Using strongest & largest muscles for work

    • Prevents fatigue, muscle strain, & injury


Body mechanics1

Body Mechanics

  • Posture – body alignment

  • Lets the body move & function with support & efficiency

  • Base of support –

    • Area on which a body rests

    • Good base of support needed for balance

    • Feet are base of support when standing


Good body mechanics

Good body mechanics

  • Use strongest & largest muscles whenever possible

    • Shoulders

    • Upper arms

    • Hips

    • thighs

  • Bend knees & squat to lift heavy objects

  • Do not bend from waist

  • Hold items close to your body & base of support

  • Avoid unnecessary bending & lifting


Good body mechanics1

Good body mechanics

  • Do your work at waist level

  • Push, slide, or pull heavy objects rather than lifting them

  • Widen base of support when pushing or pulling

  • Move front leg forward when pushing

  • Move rear leg back when pulling

  • Turn entire body when changing direction of movement


Good body mechanics2

Good body mechanics

  • Avoid sudden or jerky movements, work with smooth & even movements

  • Get help from co-workers

  • Don’t lift objects higher than chest level


Positioning

Positioning

  • Proper positioning is important

    • Promotes comfort & wellbeing

    • Improves breathing & circulation

    • Prevents complications

      • Pressure ulcers

      • Contractures


Fowler s position

Fowler’s position

  • HOB 45 – 60 degrees

  • Keep spine straight

  • Support head & arms with pillows


Supine position

Supine position

  • Back-lying position with flat bed

  • Head & shoulders supported with pillows

  • Arms/hands at sides, may support hands on small pillows with palms down


Prone position

Prone position

  • Lying on abd with head turned to one side

  • Pillow under head, abd, lower legs

  • Arms flexed at elbow with hands near head

  • Feet can hang over mattress, then don’t need a pillow under lower legs


Lateral or side lying position

Lateral or Side-lying position

  • Pillow under head & neck

  • Upper leg in front of lower leg & supported with pillows

  • Small pillow under upper hand & arm

  • Pillow behind back


Sim s position

Sim’s position

  • Left side-lying position with upper leg sharply flexed so it is not on the lower leg

  • Lower arm behind patient

  • Pillows under head & shoulder, upper leg, upper arm & hand


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