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Health Occupations. Muscular System – Unit 2. Muscular Contraction. Occurs through a chain of molecular actions Sliding Filament Theory Muscle cells use glycogen to produce energy used to convert ADP to ATP

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health occupations

Health Occupations

Muscular System – Unit 2

muscular contraction
Muscular Contraction
  • Occurs through a chain of molecular actions
  • Sliding Filament Theory
    • Muscle cells use glycogen to produce energy used to convert ADP to ATP
    • Stimulus to contract causes the ATP cycle to combine proteins actin & myosin into actomyosin
    • Calcium is needed for reaction to work
sliding filament theory cont
Sliding Filament Theory Cont.
  • Lactic acid is produced from glycogen metabolism and is converted to water and carbon dioxide if oxygen is present
  • If oxygen is in short supply, lactic acid builds up and soreness occurs
  • Heat is also produced as a byproduct
slide4

Oxygen

Metabolism

Muscle

glycogen

CO2 + H20

Lactic acid

HEAT

If lactic acid builds

Up = soreness

Energy released

Energy

released

ADP – Adenosine

diphosphate

ATP – adenosine

triphosphate

Stimulus to contract-

Energy from ADP/ATP

Cycle, plus Ca++, changes actin +

Myosin = Actomyosin

Energy

released

Phosphate

Calcium

Myosin

Actin

Muscle contraction

Actomyosin

types of muscle contraction
Types of Muscle Contraction
  • Strength depends on the strength of nerve impulses received from the brain
  • ALL OR NONE LAW OF SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION

- EACH FIBER CONTRACTS COMPLETELY OR NOT AT ALL!

  • However, not all muscle contractions are the same
types of muscle contraction1
Types of Muscle Contraction
  • Isotonic contraction
    • Muscle shortening that produces movement
  • Isometric contraction
    • Muscle shortening that does NOT produce movement (like pushing against wall)
  • Tonus
    • State of partial contraction that maintains posture
  • Twitch
    • Quick, jerky contraction of a whole muscle from one stimulus
types of muscle contraction2
Types of Muscle Contraction
  • Tetanic contraction
    • More sustained than twitch, caused by many stimuli in rapid succession
  • Tetany
    • Continued contraction of a skeletal muscle
  • Fibrillation
    • Uncoordinated contraction of muscle fibers
  • Convulsions
    • Contractions of groups of muscles in an abnormal manner
  • Spasms
    • Involuntary, sudden, & prolonged contractions
assessment
Assessment
  • General inspection
    • Asymmetry
    • Deformity
    • Swelling
    • Bruising
  • Systemic movement
    • Assess for weakness
  • Reflex
    • Assess neurological functioning
assessment cont
Assessment cont
  • Protractor
    • Measures joint ROM
  • Blood tests
    • Measures enzymes indicating muscular damage (esp heart attacks)
  • Electromyography tests
    • Tests individual muscles with needles inserted into muscle
  • Muscle biopsy
    • Take a slice of muscle to assess for tissue disorders
disorders of muscle system
Disorders of muscle system
  • Muscle cramp
    • Sudden involuntary contraction of muscle producing pain
      • Usually in legs or feet
      • Causes
        • Exertion
        • Unknown
      • Treatment
        • Stretching
        • Gentle pressure
muscular dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy
  • Group of genetic diseases involving painless, gradual atrophy of muscle tissue
  • Mild to severe sx
  • No cure
  • Treatment
    • Meds to slow progression
    • Braces
    • Corrective surgery
    • Gene therapy
fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia
  • Group of muscle disorders affecting tendons, ligaments, & fibrous tissues
  • Pain commonly in neck, shoulders, thorax, lower back, thighs
  • NO INFLAMMATION
  • Pain & tenderness after exposure to cold, damp, illness, minor trauma
  • More common in women
  • Treatment
    • Decrease stress
    • Rest, heat, massage
    • Therapy to stretch muscles, exercise
gangrene
Gangrene
  • Caused by microorganism
  • Bacteria enter muscle tissue that has died & destroys surrounding living tissue
  • Extremities most often affected, but may see it occur in gallbladder or intestines
  • Treatment
    • Remove dead tissue
    • Antibiotics
    • Meds against toxins
hernia
Hernia
  • Abnormal protrusion of a body part into another body area
  • Common – intestine through abd wall
  • Results from weak abd muscles
  • Treatment
    • Bracing
    • Surgery
    • Meds
myasthenia gravis
Myasthenia gravis
  • Condition in which nerve impulses are not transmitted normally from the brain to the muscles
  • Unknown cause
  • Autoimmune disorder
  • Muscle weakness in different body areas that eventually become severe
  • Remission may occur
  • No cure
  • Treatment – maintain life support
poliomyelitis
Poliomyelitis
  • Viral infection resulting in paralysis
  • No cure
  • Vaccination prevents
  • Treatment
    • Symptom relief
muscle sprain
Muscle Sprain
  • Traumatic injury to tendons, muscles, or ligaments of a joint
  • Pain & swelling
  • Treatment
    • Heat/cold application
    • Rest
    • Ultrasound
pes panus
Pes Panus
  • Flat foot
  • Fallen arches
  • Congenital or weak foot muscles
  • Causes extreme pain
  • Treatment
    • Corrective shoes
    • Massage
    • Exercise
tetanus
Tetanus
  • Lockjaw
  • Caused by bacteria
  • Muscle spasms may be severe & can result in death
  • No cure but vaccine
  • Treatment
    • Prevent complications of muscles spasms
    • Life support
trichinosis
Trichinosis
  • Parasitic infection caused by eating undercooked pork
  • Parasites form cysts in muscle tissues
    • Diaphragm
    • Chest muscles
  • Pain, tenderness, fatigue
  • Can be fatal if it affects the brain or heart
body mechanics
Body Mechanics
  • Careful & efficient use of body
    • Good posture
    • Balance
    • Using strongest & largest muscles for work
    • Prevents fatigue, muscle strain, & injury
body mechanics1
Body Mechanics
  • Posture – body alignment
  • Lets the body move & function with support & efficiency
  • Base of support –
    • Area on which a body rests
    • Good base of support needed for balance
    • Feet are base of support when standing
good body mechanics
Good body mechanics
  • Use strongest & largest muscles whenever possible
    • Shoulders
    • Upper arms
    • Hips
    • thighs
  • Bend knees & squat to lift heavy objects
  • Do not bend from waist
  • Hold items close to your body & base of support
  • Avoid unnecessary bending & lifting
good body mechanics1
Good body mechanics
  • Do your work at waist level
  • Push, slide, or pull heavy objects rather than lifting them
  • Widen base of support when pushing or pulling
  • Move front leg forward when pushing
  • Move rear leg back when pulling
  • Turn entire body when changing direction of movement
good body mechanics2
Good body mechanics
  • Avoid sudden or jerky movements, work with smooth & even movements
  • Get help from co-workers
  • Don’t lift objects higher than chest level
positioning
Positioning
  • Proper positioning is important
    • Promotes comfort & wellbeing
    • Improves breathing & circulation
    • Prevents complications
      • Pressure ulcers
      • Contractures
fowler s position
Fowler’s position
  • HOB 45 – 60 degrees
  • Keep spine straight
  • Support head & arms with pillows
supine position
Supine position
  • Back-lying position with flat bed
  • Head & shoulders supported with pillows
  • Arms/hands at sides, may support hands on small pillows with palms down
prone position
Prone position
  • Lying on abd with head turned to one side
  • Pillow under head, abd, lower legs
  • Arms flexed at elbow with hands near head
  • Feet can hang over mattress, then don’t need a pillow under lower legs
lateral or side lying position
Lateral or Side-lying position
  • Pillow under head & neck
  • Upper leg in front of lower leg & supported with pillows
  • Small pillow under upper hand & arm
  • Pillow behind back
sim s position
Sim’s position
  • Left side-lying position with upper leg sharply flexed so it is not on the lower leg
  • Lower arm behind patient
  • Pillows under head & shoulder, upper leg, upper arm & hand
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