Tekst Lien Russian Foreign Policy. Lecture Series The Concept of Russia. Aim of the course : give insights in Russia’s FP and illuminate characteristics of Russia’s FP behaviour. Russia in the world: balancing relations between EU and CIS (these are the 2 areas the main focus will be on)
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The Concept of Russia
the essence of Russian Foreign Policy
both under Kozyrev and under Primakov, the Russian diplomatic elite succeeded in keeping open both FP options: Co-operation in post-Soviet space and relations with the West (G7). So unlike this visualization, one could better visualize the FP in these two phases in the following way.
Kozyrev post-Soviet space
East & Near Abroad
1991 1992 1994 1996 1997
1992 CIS treaty on collective security(signed by Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan new signed 28/4 Dushan °ODKB (org of the treaty on coll sec)
1994: member of ASEAN (Association of Souteast asian nations) regional forum
1996: Shanghai Five China, Russia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan This group was originally created as a forum to resolve old Soviet-Chinese border disputes.
April 1997: Union with Belarus
July 1997: full dialogue partner in ASEAN
March 1992 Russia becomes member of Council of Baltic Sea States
25/12/91: Russia takes over UN membership
1994 PCA signed with EU
February 1996: Russia becomes member of Council of Europe
May 1997: Founding Act with NATO
Russia-Nato permanent joint council
December 1997:start of Northern Dimension Initiative in EU
timeline shows post-Soviet space one cannot exactly distinguish a radical pro-Western choice under Kozyrev or a radical pro-Eurasian choice under Primakov. a clear multi-vector policy, over the past decade, the Russian diplomatic elite managed to steer clear of too extreme views and maintain contacts on different fronts.
In this light, we can see the proclaimed ‘romantic’, pro-Western stance under Kozyrev maybe simply as a normalisation of relations with the West after seventy years of communism. Casier: ‘The Kozyrev era was maybe more typical of the late Soviet days and the rhetoric of Reformism, than it was typical of a fully developed foreign policy.’ (Casier 2000)
policy analysts often speak of a Kozyrev and a Primakov-doctrine but hardly speak of an Ivanov-doctrine. Attribute it to > Putin was such an eye-catching newcomer on the scene not due to invisibility of Ivanov as a foreign minister or to his capabilities. The attention for Putin is inherent maybe to the ‘elected monarchy’ (Shevtsova, Malfliet) that Russian Presidency already had started to become since Yeltsin.
A new direction in Russian foreign policy?
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
June 2001: Shanghai FiveShanghai Cooperation Organisation
December 1999: agreement on formation ofUnion State with Belarus
January / June 2000: Military Doctrine and Concept of National Security
May 2001: Eurasian Economic Community Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
June 1999: Common Strategy
October 1999: Medium Term Strategy
2001 Common European Economic Space Putin & Prodi charged high level group to define the concept for economic relations in the medium term
March 2003: Wider Europe - Neighbourhood Initiative
May 2002: 19+1 formula: new Russia-NATO council
Go West, Go East, or focus on the Near Abroad?
Does Russia have to choose?
Foreign policy choice determined by mutually advantageous pragmatism with economic undertone
Belarus post-Soviet space
! Russian idea hasn’t vanished from Russian society, but discourse in FP is more straightforwardly pragmatic and less terminology reminiscent of the Russian empire, panslavism and slavic brotherhood’ is used