New england vs chesapeake
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New England vs. Chesapeake. Development and Differences. New England (Massachusetts Bay). Puritans Reform Church of England from within 1629 major persecution under Charles-I 400 settlers left with charter for Mass Bay 1630 expedition led by John Winthrop; 700 settlers

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New England vs. Chesapeake

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New england vs chesapeake

New England vs. Chesapeake

Development and Differences


New england massachusetts bay

New England (Massachusetts Bay)

  • Puritans

    • Reform Church of England from within

  • 1629 major persecution under Charles-I

    • 400 settlers left with charter for Mass Bay

  • 1630 expedition led by John Winthrop;

    • 700 settlers

    • City on a Hill (sermon while under way)

    • Usual 1st year mortality figures

  • By 1634 – 10,000+ settlers


New england massachusetts bay1

New England (Massachusetts Bay)

  • Religion was primary driving force for society

    • Colony rules required church attendance, set tithe rates

    • Organized by individual congregations - chose own minister, controlled own finances, membership (who actually was a “saint” - born again/salvation experience publicly recounted)

    • Only the “saints” could vote

  • Not a theocracy (rule by the clergy), but all laws would follow biblical teaching

  • “Meeting House” served as both church and town hall

    • All houses within ½ mile of meeting house (travel time on Sabbath)


Education

Education

  • Education important (had to be able to read the Bible men AND women)

  • Every town over 50 had to have a school master, over 100 had to have a grammar school

    • attendance not mandatory

  • Harvard founded in 1638 to educate clergy

  • Literacy Rate

    • New England: men - 90%, women 40%

    • Other colonies 35%-50%

    • England 30%


Expansion of new england colonies

Expansion of New England Colonies

  • Expansion seeking new land

    • Connecticut (1635)

    • New Hampshire

    • Maine

  • Expansion due to religious differences

    • Rhode Island (1631)

      • Roger Williams - Kicked out for heresy (separation of church and state [state would corrupt church], no mandatory attendance, religious tolerance); est. Providence. Other dissenters followed;

      • Anne Hutchinson (1638) - kicked out for heresy: knew scripture better than her accusers; called Puritans on own game (how can person judge interior state on outward signs)


New england massachusetts bay2

New England (Massachusetts Bay)

  • Strengths:

    • Close-knit family groups

    • Compact communities

    • Relatively healthy environment

    • Education

    • Self-governance based on written documents

      • Mayflower Compact (1620)

      • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1635)

      • Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641)


New england massachusetts bay3

New England (Massachusetts Bay)

  • Issues:

    • Short growing season

    • Relatively poor soil

    • Indians (mostly wiped out by epidemics prior to arrival of Pilgrims [1620])

      • Only a few dozen in Mass.

        • Sell land

        • Settle into “praying towns”

      • Approx 10,000 in all New England

        • Conflicts in Conn River valley – see text (pg. 79, 83) for details

          • Pequot War (1637)

          • King Philip’s War (1642)


Chesapeake virginia maryland

Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)

  • 1619 House of Burgesses established

    • similar to the British Parliament, that would meet once annually.

    • It was the first such assembly in the Americas.

    • Beginnings of bi-cameral legislature:

      • The governor, appointed by the King/Parliament

      • The governor’s council, six prominent citizens selected by the governor

      • The burgesses (representatives) from various locales, and larger plantations.

  • 1624 King James revokes charter, disbands House

  • Charles (1632) allows measure of self-government; Reinstitutes House of Burgesses

  • Economics primary driving force

    • Tobacco trade influenced most decisions

    • A few wealthy planters (“First Families”), majority (75%) indentured servants, poor farmers

      • Small number of black slaves


  • Chesapeake virginia maryland1

    Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)

    • Settlements spread along rivers

      • ~6 people per square mile

      • “Community” seldom more than a couple dozen

        • Within 3 mile walk

    • Women

      • “Target rich” environment (< 1/3 of males could find a bride)

      • Negotiate very favorable marriage terms

        • Keep much of their property if widowed

        • Often had perpetual control

        • Pass it along to children on remarriage

      • Many step families


    Chesapeake virginia maryland2

    Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)

    • Religion

      • Church of England official religion

      • Hierarchical

        • Appointed groups governed parishes, finances, poor relief

      • Widely scattered parishes

        • 10 ministers for 45 parishes

        • Religion played minor role

    • Government

      • Royal governor and council, locally elected reps

      • English Common Law

      • Travelling (Circuit) Courts

      • Controlled by “First Families”


    Chesapeake virginia maryland3

    Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)

    • Strengths:

      • Solid economic basis with cash crop

      • Lots of available land

      • Individual self-sufficiency

        • Spread out, had to rely on own resources

      • Few Indian issues

        • <3,500 by 1650

        • Retreated towards frontier, settled in “reservations”

      • Established representative government

      • Benign religious environment


    Chesapeake virginia maryland4

    Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)

    • Issues:

      • Serious mortality due to disease

      • Transportation difficulties

        • limited expansion to rivers

        • Few places for new arrivals, released indentured servants to expand into

      • Economy at the mercy of tobacco prices

        • Haves and have-nots

      • Corruption issues with government

        • Conflict between Crown reps and local reps

        • Each take care of own

        • Bacon’s Rebellion (1675) see page 80 in text


    New england vs chesapeake1

    New England vs. Chesapeake


    Conflict and war

    Conflict and War


    Hw read pp76 prop colonies 84 gist

    HW:Read pp76 (Prop. Colonies) – 84; GIST


    Follow up

    Follow-up

    • Lexington Practice DBQ (HW)

    • Enduring Voices set 3-3

    • 1993 Chesapeake-N.E. DBQ (HW)


    Enduring voices document analysis

    “Enduring Voices”Document Analysis

    • Groups of ~4

    • Pp 62-70

      • Intro, preview questions

      • Read docs

      • Discuss questions 1-6 among group (jot down thoughts to share)

      • Large group discussion


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