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New England vs. Chesapeake. Development and Differences. New England (Massachusetts Bay). Puritans Reform Church of England from within 1629 major persecution under Charles-I 400 settlers left with charter for Mass Bay 1630 expedition led by John Winthrop; 700 settlers

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new england vs chesapeake

New England vs. Chesapeake

Development and Differences

new england massachusetts bay
New England (Massachusetts Bay)
  • Puritans
    • Reform Church of England from within
  • 1629 major persecution under Charles-I
    • 400 settlers left with charter for Mass Bay
  • 1630 expedition led by John Winthrop;
    • 700 settlers
    • City on a Hill (sermon while under way)
    • Usual 1st year mortality figures
  • By 1634 – 10,000+ settlers
new england massachusetts bay1
New England (Massachusetts Bay)
  • Religion was primary driving force for society
    • Colony rules required church attendance, set tithe rates
    • Organized by individual congregations - chose own minister, controlled own finances, membership (who actually was a “saint” - born again/salvation experience publicly recounted)
    • Only the “saints” could vote
  • Not a theocracy (rule by the clergy), but all laws would follow biblical teaching
  • “Meeting House” served as both church and town hall
    • All houses within ½ mile of meeting house (travel time on Sabbath)
education
Education
  • Education important (had to be able to read the Bible men AND women)
  • Every town over 50 had to have a school master, over 100 had to have a grammar school
    • attendance not mandatory
  • Harvard founded in 1638 to educate clergy
  • Literacy Rate
    • New England: men - 90%, women 40%
    • Other colonies 35%-50%
    • England 30%
expansion of new england colonies
Expansion of New England Colonies
  • Expansion seeking new land
    • Connecticut (1635)
    • New Hampshire
    • Maine
  • Expansion due to religious differences
    • Rhode Island (1631)
      • Roger Williams - Kicked out for heresy (separation of church and state [state would corrupt church], no mandatory attendance, religious tolerance); est. Providence. Other dissenters followed;
      • Anne Hutchinson (1638) - kicked out for heresy: knew scripture better than her accusers; called Puritans on own game (how can person judge interior state on outward signs)
new england massachusetts bay2
New England (Massachusetts Bay)
  • Strengths:
    • Close-knit family groups
    • Compact communities
    • Relatively healthy environment
    • Education
    • Self-governance based on written documents
      • Mayflower Compact (1620)
      • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1635)
      • Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641)
new england massachusetts bay3
New England (Massachusetts Bay)
  • Issues:
    • Short growing season
    • Relatively poor soil
    • Indians (mostly wiped out by epidemics prior to arrival of Pilgrims [1620])
      • Only a few dozen in Mass.
        • Sell land
        • Settle into “praying towns”
      • Approx 10,000 in all New England
        • Conflicts in Conn River valley – see text (pg. 79, 83) for details
          • Pequot War (1637)
          • King Philip’s War (1642)
chesapeake virginia maryland
Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)
  • 1619 House of Burgesses established
      • similar to the British Parliament, that would meet once annually.
      • It was the first such assembly in the Americas.
      • Beginnings of bi-cameral legislature:
        • The governor, appointed by the King/Parliament
        • The governor’s council, six prominent citizens selected by the governor
        • The burgesses (representatives) from various locales, and larger plantations.
    • 1624 King James revokes charter, disbands House
    • Charles (1632) allows measure of self-government; Reinstitutes House of Burgesses
  • Economics primary driving force
    • Tobacco trade influenced most decisions
    • A few wealthy planters (“First Families”), majority (75%) indentured servants, poor farmers
      • Small number of black slaves
chesapeake virginia maryland1
Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)
  • Settlements spread along rivers
    • ~6 people per square mile
    • “Community” seldom more than a couple dozen
      • Within 3 mile walk
  • Women
    • “Target rich” environment (< 1/3 of males could find a bride)
    • Negotiate very favorable marriage terms
      • Keep much of their property if widowed
      • Often had perpetual control
      • Pass it along to children on remarriage
    • Many step families
chesapeake virginia maryland2
Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)
  • Religion
    • Church of England official religion
    • Hierarchical
      • Appointed groups governed parishes, finances, poor relief
    • Widely scattered parishes
      • 10 ministers for 45 parishes
      • Religion played minor role
  • Government
    • Royal governor and council, locally elected reps
    • English Common Law
    • Travelling (Circuit) Courts
    • Controlled by “First Families”
chesapeake virginia maryland3
Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)
  • Strengths:
    • Solid economic basis with cash crop
    • Lots of available land
    • Individual self-sufficiency
      • Spread out, had to rely on own resources
    • Few Indian issues
      • <3,500 by 1650
      • Retreated towards frontier, settled in “reservations”
    • Established representative government
    • Benign religious environment
chesapeake virginia maryland4
Chesapeake (Virginia-Maryland)
  • Issues:
    • Serious mortality due to disease
    • Transportation difficulties
      • limited expansion to rivers
      • Few places for new arrivals, released indentured servants to expand into
    • Economy at the mercy of tobacco prices
      • Haves and have-nots
    • Corruption issues with government
      • Conflict between Crown reps and local reps
      • Each take care of own
      • Bacon’s Rebellion (1675) see page 80 in text
follow up
Follow-up
  • Lexington Practice DBQ (HW)
  • Enduring Voices set 3-3
  • 1993 Chesapeake-N.E. DBQ (HW)
enduring voices document analysis
“Enduring Voices”Document Analysis
  • Groups of ~4
  • Pp 62-70
    • Intro, preview questions
    • Read docs
    • Discuss questions 1-6 among group (jot down thoughts to share)
    • Large group discussion
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