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1. Integrating Quotes Using Your Research Effectively
2. How do I use my research? Integrating sources into your body paragraphsis hard work but rewarding if done well.
3. Can I just string my notes together to form my paper?
Use your sources as support for your insights, not as the backbone of your paper. A patchwork of sources stuck in a paper like random letters in a ransom note does not a research paper make.
4. How do I avoid a patchwork paper? Summarize (condense a text by stating the main ideas in your own words) and paraphrase (say the same thing in a different way) much more often than you use direct quotes (same words as the original, in quotation marks).
5. So when should I use a direct quote?
Don't use direct quotes as fillers but because the author says something so aptly or dramatically that a paraphrase would lose that power. passage
6. So how do I use a quote? If do you use a direct quote, the explanation should be twice as long as the quote. Even summaries and paraphrases don't become your own thoughts just because they're in your own words. You have to explain them too. Readers have to know why you include source material where you do.
7. Use quotations to support your argument, rather than relying upon someone else's words. Keep quotes to a minimum. A short phrase or sentence is more easily understood than a long quotation.
Look for the "kernel" or the most important part of the quotation and extract it.
Paraphrase a quotation in your own words when possible.
8. Introduce a quotation by citing the name of the authority . Example: Thoreau believed that "a true patriot would resist a tyrannical majority" (23).
9. Combine a paraphrase with a quotation. Original: Tania Modleski suggests that "if television is considered by some to be a vast wasteland, soap operas are thought to be the least nourishing spot in the desert" (123).
Revised: In her critique of soap operas, Tania Modleski argues that some view television as "a vast wasteland" and soap operas as "the least nourishing spot in the desert" (123).
10. Describe or identify the source of information if it is available. Example: In The Coming of Age, Simone de Beavoir contends that the decrepitude accompanying old age is "in complete conflict with the manly or womanly ideal cherished by the young and fully grown" (65).
11. Use key words from the quotation and make them a grammatical part of your sentence. Example: As William Kneale suggests, some humans have a "moral deafness" which is never punctured no matter what the moral treatment (Acton 93).
12. Short Quotations If your quotations are less than four lines long (which is usually the case), place them in your text and enclose them with quotation marks.
13. Remember to include a parenthetical citation for each quotation used. Example: Edward Zigler laments, "One finds violence, hostility, and aggression everywhere, including TV, the movies, and in many of our everyday social relations" (40).
14. Long Quotations If a quotation is more than four lines long, set it off from your text by indenting.
Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon.
Indent ten spaces, double space the lines, and do not use quotation marks.
Do not indent the opening line unless the quote begins a new paragraph.
15. Final Reminders Do not quote when a paraphrase will do.
Do not cite sources for information that is readily available in popular reference books:
well-known dates and events
identities of famous personalities and politicians
Always provide a context for your quotations -- explain to the reader why and how the quote is relevant to the topic.