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Lesson 12 The Loons. Margaret Laurence Lecturer: Meng Fanyan. Margaret Laurence. Born in Neepawa, Manitoba in Canada in 1926.Her publications include This Side of Jordan (1960), The Stone Angle(1964), A Jest of God (1966), The First Dwellers (1969), and The Diviners (1974).

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Lesson 12 the loons

Lesson 12The Loons

Margaret Laurence

Lecturer: Meng Fanyan


Margaret laurence
Margaret Laurence

  • Born in Neepawa, Manitoba in Canada in 1926.Her publications include This Side of Jordan (1960), The Stone Angle(1964), A Jest of God (1966), The First Dwellers (1969), and The Diviners (1974).


Structural and stylistic analysis
Structural and stylistic analysis

  • Part I. Paras 1 - 2Introduction of the novel, when, where, who, etc. The general background.


  • Part II. Para.3 – Para.4 (p. 218)The whole storySection 1. Para.3 (p.206) – Para.6 (p.208)Introducing Piquette.Section 2. Para.7 (p.208) – Para.2 (p.214)Days together with Piquette at Diamond LakeSection 3. Para.3 (p. 214) – Para.2 (p.217)Second meeting with Piquette several years laterSection 4. Para.3 (p.217) – Para.4 (p.218)Piquette’s death



Detailed study of the text
Detailed Study of the Text

  • 1. pebble: small stone made smooth and round by the action of water, eg in a stream or on the seashore 2. scrub: underdeveloped trees or shrubsoak 橡树, 栎树scrub oak: short, stunted (short, not-fully-grown) oak tree


  • cf:bush: (large) low growing plant with several or many woody stems coming out from the root (tree: with a single trunk)shrub: (small) plant with woody stem, lower than a tree, & usu. with several separate stems from the root



  • 6. shack: a small roughly built house, hut, 7. dwelling n (fml) place of residence; house, flat, etc my humble dwelling dwelling-house(esp. law): house used as a residence, not as a place of work 8. cabin: small hut or shelter, usu made of wood cabin class: second highest standard of accommodation on a ship二等舱


  • 9. poplar: 杨树

  • 10. chink: close the narrow openings with, plaster

  • 11. Batoche:巴托什, a village at the centre of Saskatchewan Province, Canada. The battle ground where the Canadian militia beat the rebellious army in 1885. It’s been established as the National Park of History now.(简明)

  • 12. Métis: [mei’ti:s] half-breed, one of mixed blood, esp. (often cap.) half breed 混血儿,尤指法国人与印第安人的混血后裔,杂种动物


  • 13. chaos: complete disorder or confusion The burglars left the house in (a state of) chaos. The wintry weather has caused chaos on the roads. chaotic: in a state of chaos; completely disorganized With no one to keep order the situation in the classroom was chaotic.


  • 14. lean-to: small building or shed with its roof resting against the side of a larger building, wall or fence They keep hens in a lean-to at the end of the garden. a lean-to greenhouse

  • 15. warp: cause sth to become bent or twisted from the usual or natural shape, esp because of uneven shrinkage or expansion The damp wood began to warp.The hot sun had warped the cover of the book.

  • 16. lumber: (esp Brit) unwanted pieces of furniture, etc that are stored away or take up space(esp US) = timber


  • 17. coop: cage for small creature against the side of a larger building, wall or fence

  • 18. tangle: (cause sth to) become twisted into a confused massHer hair got all tangled up in the barbed wire fence.

  • 19. strand: a single piece or threadMany strands are twisted together to form a rope.

  • 20. barb: the sharp point of a fish hook, arrow, etc, with a curved shape which prevents it from being easily pulled out


  • 21. rust: the reddish brown surface that forms on iron when attacked by water and air

  • rusty: covered with rust

  • 22. Patois: a dialect other than the standard illiterate or provincial speech, jargon 洋泾浜英语

  • 23. broken:

  • 1) (of a foreign language) spoken imperfectly; not fluentspeak in broken English

  • 2) (of land) having an uneven surface; roughan area of broken, rocky ground


  • 3) (of a person) weakened and exhausted by illness or misfortuneHe was broken-hearted when his wife died.broken home: family in which the parents have divorced or separated He comes from a broken home. obscenity: offensive, repulsive remarks, cursing, vulgaritylaws against obscenity on the televisionfour letter words: fuck, shit, bull shit


  • 24. belong: to be suitable or advantageous, be in the right placeI don't belong in a place like this.He doesn't belong in the beginner's class.I refuse to go abroad: I belong here.25. Cree: one of the Indian tribes in Canada26. reservation: a piece of land set apart for N. American Indianscf: resort: (a) popular holiday centreseaside, skiing, health, etc resorts Beidaihe is a leading north coast resort. (b) (US) hotel or guest-house for holiday-makers


  • 27. neither fish, flesh nor good red herring / neither flesh, fowl, nor good salt herring : difficult to identify or classify; vague; ambiguous 难以辨别或分类的,非驴非马的,不伦不类的fowl: a. domestic cock or henWe keep a few fowls and some goats. b. flesh of certain types of birds, eaten for foodWe had fish for the first course, followed by roast fowl and fresh vegetables. c. any bird: the fowls of the air waterfowl barnyard fowl wildfowlherring: Atlantic fish, usu swimming in very large shoals( 鱼群), used for food 鲱鱼


  • 28. odd: not regular, occasional, casual, occasional, random flesh, fowl, nor good salt herring : difficult to identify or classify; vague; ambiguous Life would be very dull without the odd adventure now and then.29. section hands / gang: a group of workmen keeping one section of a railway line repaired30. relief: aid in the form of goods, coupon or money given, as by a government agency, to persons unable to support themselveson relief: receiving government aid because of poverty, unemployment, etc.a relief teacher


  • 31. …with a face that seemed totally unfamiliar with laughter, would knock at the doors of the town’s brick houses… This suggests that the Tonnerres had lived a very miserable life. They had never experienced happiness in their whole life. The “brick houses” indicates the wealthy people’s home. 32. lard: pig fat made pure by melting, used in cookery33. pail: a usu. round open vessel of metal or wood, with handles, used for carrying liquids, bucket (just like the ones we use now)


  • 34. bruise: injury caused by a blow to the body or to a fruit, discolouring the skin but not breaking it He was covered in bruises after falling off his bicycle.35. brawl: noisy quarrel or fighta drunken brawl in a bar 36. howl: long loud wailing cry of a dog, wolf, etc , loud cry of a person expressing pain, scorn, amusement, etc  let out a howl of laughter, agony, ragehowl: v.wolves howling in the forest to howl in agony syn: bawl, moan, scream, wail, sob


  • 37. Mountie: member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police fruit, discolouring the skin but not breaking it He was covered in bruises after falling off his bicycle.加拿大皇家骑警mount: ~ sb (on sth) get onto or put (sb) onto a horse, etc for riding; provide (sb) with a horse for ridingHe quickly mounted (his horse) and rode away. He mounted the boy on the horse. The policemen were mounted on (ie rode) black horses. a mounted policemen, ie on horses 38. cell: a small room in a prison


  • 39. sporadic: happening or seen only occasionally or in a few places; occurring irregularly sporadic showers sporadic raids, gunfire, fightingsyn: irregular infrequent, intermittent occasional40. negligible: too slight or unimportant to be worth any attention, of little importance or size; not worth considering a negligible amount, error, effectThis year’s deficit in foreign trade is negligible.'negligent: not taking or showing enough careHe has been negligent in not locking the doors as he was told to.


  • 41. She existed for me only as a vaguely embarrassing presenceAs far as I am concerned, her presence would only make other people feel ill at ease / uncomfortable.42. hoarse: sounding or growling rough and harsh He shouted himself hoarse. 43. limp: walk unevenly, as when one foot or leg is hurt or stiffThat dog must be hurt; he's limping.The injured footballer limped slowly off the field. 



  • 44. grimy: dirty, messy, filthy of the ground grime: dirt, esp in a layer on a surface 45. peculiar: odd or strange, eccentric, strange in a troubling or displeasing waya peculiar taste, smell, noise, etca peculiar feeling that one has been here beforeMy keys have disappeared; it's most peculiar!He's a bit peculiar!


  • 46. flare: burn brightly but briefly or unsteadily of the ground The match flared in the darkness.flare up: burn suddenly more intensely The fire flared up as I put more logs on it. reach a more violent state; suddenly become angry Violence has flared up again.He flares up at the slightest provocation. (of an illness)recur, happen againMy back trouble has flared up again.


  • 47. It's under control all right of the ground all right:(infml) certainly; beyond doubt; expressing absolute certainty That's the man I saw in the car all right.48. the dickens (infml euph) (used to give emphasis, esp in questions) the Devil Who / What / where the dickens is that? We had the dickens of a job finding the place.我们费了九牛二虎之力才找到这个地方。


  • 49. take off: go away, depart of the ground I grabbed my hat and took off for the Town Hall.back: ago, into the pastsome few years backfar back in the Middle ages50. contagious: (of a disease) that can be spread by touch, infectious51. distress: pain, agony, misery


  • 52. bet: of the ground I'll bet you $5 that they'll win the next election.He bet me that I couldn't do it.I bet it rains / will rain tomorrow.You bet: certainlyWill you tell her? You bet.53. for Peter’s sake: for God's / goodness' / Heaven's / gosh’s / pity's, etc sake (used as an interjection before or after a command or request, or to express irritationFor God's sake, stop that whining!For goodness' sake! How can you be so stupid?


  • 54. cross: rather angry of the ground I was cross with him for being late. What are you so cross about? She gave me a cross look. crossly: madly, angrily, irritably55. matron: woman in charge of the nurses in a hospital (now called a senior nursing officer) 56. rigid: stiff; not bending or yielding; strict; firm; unchangingHer face was rigid with terror.He is a man of very rigid principlespractise rigid economy 厉行节约


  • 57. cameo: ( of the ground 浮雕宝石) a piece of women's ornamental jewellery consisting of a raised shape or figure on the background of a small fine flat stone of a different colour58. mauve: (of) a pale purple colourvein(静脉), artery(动脉), blood ca?pillary(毛细血管)59. stifle: hold back, suppress, restrain, inhibit The children were stifled (killed) by the smoke.I am stifling in this close room.She was getting sleepy and tried to stifle a yawn.The government soon stifled these complaints.suffocate: 窒息


  • 60. at that: additionally, besides, as well of the ground It's an idea, and a good one at that.I made a mistake, and a very bad mistake at that.at that: perhapsShe suggested we should bring the car, and it's not a bad idea at that.61. muse: reflect, ponderOgilvie's voice took on a musing note.


  • 62. Bide-a-Wee: tolerate a little, stay with us a little whileBide: stay, Wee: a littleBoonie Doon: (boonie: love, beautiful)My Boonie lies over the Ocean Bonny: attractive, fair, excellent, fineA bonnie ship 美丽的小船63. bear: show (sth); carry visibly; display The document bore his signature.The ring bears an inscription.(铭文)


  • 64. austere: without ornament, plain whilean austere style of paintingShe dressed austerely rather than smartly.65. filigree: ornamental lace-like work of gold, silver or copper ware, delicate ornamental wire work 金、银、铜丝细工饰品 silver filigree jewellery 银丝首饰66. fern 蕨类植物67. raspberry:覆盆子,山莓




  • 71. scarlet: bright red  She blushed scarlet when I spat forth the obscenities. scarlet fever: infectious / contagious disease causing scarlet marks on the skin scarlet woman (dated derog) immoral woman; prostitute


  • 72. lantern: light for use outdoors in a transparent case that protects it from the wind, etc 73. moose: a type of large deer, with very large flat horns, that lives in the northern parts of America (and in some northern countries of Europe, where it is called an elk) (麋鹿)74. antler: either of the pair of branched horns of a male deer75. bleach: whiten


  • 76. fissure: long deep crack in rock or earth that protects it from the wind, etc 77. otherwise: in other or different respects; apart from thatThe rent is high, (but) otherwise the house is fine. 78. cone: a solid object with a round base and a point at the topa hollow or solid object shaped like thisMany children would rather eat ice cream from cones than from dishes.


  • 79. meticulous: giving or showing great precision and care; very attentive to detail (implying excessiveness) a meticulous worker, researcher, etc meticulous painting and free sketch painting 工笔 / 写意画80. tote: (infml) carry to tote a gun81. winter: spend the winter  it became fashionable for the rich to winter in the sun. birds wintering in the south


  • 82. fell: to cut down (a tree) very attentive to detail (implying excessiveness)83. lame: unable to walk normally because of an injury or defect 84. scuff: scrape, to make a rough mark or marks, with one’s shoes, on the smooth surface of furniture, or floor, etc The floor was badly scuffed up where they had been dancing.85. coarse: not fine, rough or loose in texture, vulgar, crude, harsh  a coarse complexion / skin  coarse manners, laughter, tastes, etc


  • 86. stamp: put (one's foot) down heavily on (the ground, etc) walk with loud heavy steps stamping the ground to keep warm She stamped the soil (flat/down) round the plant.  Don't stamp, you'll wake everyone up. 87. bizarre: strange in appearance or effect; grotesque; eccentric 


  • 88. Unlikely it may seem: although it may seem not likely to happen,... as…as: (introduces adverbial clause of comparison) You know as much as I do Sometimes the subject of the subordinate clause can be omitted: He said the situation there was not as bad as had been reported. The 2 houses were as clean as could be.


  • 89. spring from: arise or come from happen,... He is sprung from royal blood, is of royal ancestry. If you ask someone where they have sprung from you are asking them where they have come from in a rather surprised way, because they have appeared unexpectedly.


  • 90. Tecumseh, 1768-1813, chief of the Shawnee Indians; born Ohio. A noted military leader, he planned a confederacy of tribes to resist U.S. encroachment, but the defeat of his brother, the Shawnee Prophet in 1811 ended the Indian military movement. Tecumseh then fought alongside the British against the Americans in the War of 1812. He died in the battle of the Thames.


  • Iroquois: Ohio. A noted military leader, he planned a confederacy of tribes to resist U.S. encroachment, but the defeat of his brother, the Shawnee Prophet in 1811 ended the Indian military movement. Tecumseh then fought alongside the British against the Americans in the War of 1812. He died in the battle of the Thames.(易洛魁人) an American Indian confederacy (combination of groups of people) of New York. Brebeuf, Jean de, Saint, 1593-1649, French Roman Catholic missionary. One of the Jesuit Martyrs of North America. A missionary to the Huron Indians, Brebeuf with his colleague Gabriel Lalemant was killed by the Iroquois.圣布雷伯夫, 法国天主教耶稣会传教士。


  • (Emily)Pauline Johnson, 1862-1913, Canadian Indian. Daughter of an Indian tribe chief and a British woman. Her poems sang high praise of the Indian tradition and were very popular at her time. She traveled around Canada, America and Britain, giving recitals in deer skin robes, which won enormous fame for her. 


  • 91. exalt: elevate, exhilarate of an Indian tribe chief and a British woman. Her poems sang high praise of the Indian tradition and were very popular at her time. She traveled around Canada, America and Britain, giving recitals in deer skin robes, which won enormous fame for her. 92. prophetess: female prophet, a man who believes that he is directed by God to make known and explain God's will and to lead or teach a religion prophet: a person who tells, or claims to be able to tell the nature or course of future events. A person who spoke for God and who communicated God’s message courageously to God’s Chosen People. Elisha, Abraham, Moses, David, Nathan, Solomon, etc.


  • 93. impart: give, pass on ( a secret, news, etc to sb.) of an Indian tribe chief and a British woman. Her poems sang high praise of the Indian tradition and were very popular at her time. She traveled around Canada, America and Britain, giving recitals in deer skin robes, which won enormous fame for her.  A teacher's aim is to impart knowledge. The Prime Minister imparted the news at the conference.94. coyote: small wolf of the plains of western N America 郊狼95. She undoubtedly knew … whatever it was that it said in Hiawatha. She knew whatever it was Whatever that it said in Hiawatha



  • 99. sullen: silently showing dislike, silently bad-tempered, unforgiving, dark, gloomy (Blackmail)look sullen, to wear a sullen look“Shut up”, D said. Sullenly, Ogilvie complied.100. lore: knowledge or wisdom, esp. of an unscientific kind, about a certain subject or possessed by a certain group of peoplebird lore, a countryman's weather lore


  • 101. reed unforgiving, dark, gloomy (Blackmail): tall hollow stem of any of various types of grass-like plants growing near water cf:reef: ridge of rock, shingle, sand, etc at or near the surface of the seaa coral reef


  • 102. nut:(sl derog) unforgiving, dark, gloomy (Blackmail)(a) (Brit also nutter) foolish, eccentric or mad personHe drives like a nut; he'll kill himself one day. b) (preceded by a n) person very interested in sth; fanatica movie, fitness, health, soccer nut


  • 103. dogged(apprec.) determined; not giving up easily unforgiving, dark, gloomy (Blackmail)a dogged defence of the cityAlthough he's less talented, he won by sheer dogged persistence.104. perseverance: continual steady effort made to fulfil some aim, persistence


  • 105. rebuff: rejection (Mark Twain: He flirted with the colossal wealth available to the lucky and the persistent, and was rebuffed)106. give: used in the idiom: sb. doesn't/couldn't give a damn, a hoot(cry of an owl), etc (about sb/sth) (infml): sb does not care at all (about sb/sth)He couldn't give a damn whether he passes the exam or not.

  • Cf: Blackmail Like letting me know what gives and where…


  • 107. dead loss: If you say that someone or something is a dead loss, you mean that they do not work properly or successfully, an infml expression.person or thing of no help or use to anyoneThis pen is a dead loss: it just won't write properly.That goalkeeper is a dead loss.108. scramble: to move or climb quickly, esp. over a rough or steep surfaceI scrambled up the rock for a better look at the sea.


  • 109. pier: an ornamental bridge-like framework built out into the sea at which boats can stop to take in or land their passengers or goods110. undergrowth: (US underbrush) mass of shrubs, bushes, etc growing closely on the ground, esp under trees clear a path through the undergrowth


  • 111. bracken: a kind of fern, which grows in forests, on wasteland, and on the slopes of hills, and becomes a rich red-brown colour in autumncf: bush, scrub, shrub112. streak: a line or mark of a different colour or texture from the ground, long, thin usu. irregular line or band


  • 113. amber: hard clear yellowish-brown gum used for making ornaments or jewellery 琥珀114. flicker: to burn unsteadily, shine with an unsteady light,wave, tremble, to move backwards and forwards unsteadily The self-assurance of Ogilvie flickered for an instant.flickering eyelid, shadows flicked on the wallThe wind blew the flickering candle out.


  • 115 ornaments or jewellery .phantom: a shadowy likeness of a dead person that seems to appear on earth, sth. which exists only in one's imagination ghostly image or figure; ghostthe phantom of his dead fatherPhantom(鬼怪式) / Mirage(幻影式) fighter plane.116.ululate: howl or wailthe ululations of the mourning women 


  • 117 ornaments or jewellery . plaintive: expressing suffering and a desire for pity, lamentable, mournful, pathetic, sorrowful, forlornThe plaintive cries of the child locked in the cupboarda plaintive old song118. chill: refrigerate, to cause to become cold, esp. without freezingchilled beercf: chilli


  • 119. mock ornaments or jewellery : make fun of (sb/sth), esp by mimicking him / it contemptuously; ridicule; defy (sb/sth) contemptuously a mocking smile, voice, laughIt is wrong to mock cripples. mockery: ridicule, despising, open disrespect120. aeon / eon ['i:?n] : a period of time too long to be measuredThe earth was formed aeons ago.


  • 121. chipmunk: small striped squirrel-like N American animal ornaments or jewellery 金花鼠122. strike: If an idea or thought strikes you, it comes into your mind suddenlyIt struck him how foolish her behaviour was.The next morning it struck me that there was no shower in the flat.If something strikes you in a particular way, it gives you a particular impression, usually a strong one.Betty strikes me as a very silly girl.How did London strike you?



  • 125. squawk: (esp. of some birds) to make a loud rough-sounding cryhens squawking at the sight of the cat126. be ill at ease: not comfortable because of lack of skill or understandingShe was ill at ease as she had never been to such parties.I am terribly ill at ease with strangers.


  • 127. fail rough-sounding cry: neglect or be unable (to do sth)He never fails to write (ie always writes) to his motherevery week. She did not fail to keep (ie She did keep) her word.Your promises have failed to (ie did not) materialize. 128.reproach: blame, sth. that brings disgrace or discreditThe youth's bad behaviour is a constant reproach to his parents.She remained as a reproach to me: I blame myself, because I could not reach her.The corrupt caders are a reproach to the Party.A coward is a reproach to an army.The slums are a reproach to our city.


  • 129. immerse: to put deep under water rough-sounding cryI immersed myself in work so as to stop thinking about her.130. jukebox: coin-operated record player, about two times the size of a home refrigerator131. boom: to make a deep hollow sound, roar


  • 132. tune rough-sounding crymelody, esp a well-marked one tuneful:having a pleasing tune; melodious 133. chrome: (铬) an alloy of chromium (铬) with other metal (esp when used as a protective coating on other metals) Here: something plated / coated / gilded with chromium, it refers to the shining edge of the jukebox, which was made of chrome.



  • 137. carmine: deep purplish red colour storing all the records, the front of which is a piece of glass of some fancy colour like rainbowsscarlet: bright redcardinal: bright redcrimson: deep redflorid: (face) red138. frizzle: (of hair) to curl tightly, to set the hair in a mass of tight curlsfrizzy: (of hair) very curly, like wool



  • 141. to advantage: in a way that shows its good points or meritsThe picture is seen to better advantage from a distanceHang the picture opposite the window so that it will show up to advantage.Her tight-fitting skirt and sweater in orange colour displayed a soft and slender body in an effect good enough to be envied.


  • 142. teeter: to seesaw , to move up and down or to and fro, waver: to move uncertainly or unsteadilyThe drunken man teetered on the edge of the pavement. She was teetering along / about / around in very high-heeled shoes. 143. sore: (of a part of the body) tender and painful, sensitive, hurting when toucheda sore knee


  • 144. jerkwater: remote and unimportant, trivial waver: to move uncertainly or unsteadily145. stink: to give a strong bad smellthe stinking ninth category landlords, rich peasants, counter revolutionaries, bad elements, Rightists, traitors, spies, and capitalist roaders146. confide: to tell a secret, to tell sth. confidentially, reveal, disclose


  • 147. blur: become unclear, obscure, dim; that appears hazy and indistinctThe town was just a blur on the horizon. Everything is a blur when I take my glasses off. Her eyes blurred with tears. 148. repel: to cause feeling of dislike, to drive back by or as if by forceLet go at once! You repel me.her untidy appearance repelled him.His filthy hair and grimy clothes repelled her. Bryan carried a palm-fan like a sword to repel his enemy.



  • 150. biddy: a hired woman, esp., a cleaner, an eccentric woman151. stockyard: a yard in which cattle, sheep, swine or horses are kept temporarily for slaughter, market or shipping 152. handle: (sl) title: have a handle to one's name, ie have a title, eg `Sir' or `Lord' Churchill has a handle to his name---Sir.



  • 153. mere: nothing more than, womanthe merest: as small or unimportant as possibleThe merest little thing makes him nervous.154. defiant: showing defiance; openly opposing or resisting sb/sth a defiant manner, look, speech 155. momentary: lasting for a very short time156. swell: stylish, socially prominent, excellent



  • 160. dressed any old how: dressed in a very careless way. womananyhow: without any regular order, in a careless manner, in any manner whatever, unsystematicallyYou can arrange them anyhow.The well-groomed (groom: take care of) woman can't wear her hair just anyhow.The books were lying on the shelves just/all anyhow.  He made notes anyhow across the page.



  • 161. brew: to prepare beer, etc. by soaking or boiling grain, leaves, etc. 162. attributes: the accessories, modifiers, nowadays so called, in China, hardware; what is needed for a resort to be considered flourishing; objects recognized as symbols 163. resort: a holiday place, or place considered good for the health


  • 164. place of belonging: place they belong to grain, leaves, etc.

  • 165. Perhaps they had been unable to find such a place ...having ceased to care any longer whether they lived or not.This obviously is an analogy (类比), in which the loons are compared to Piquette, who had been unable to find a place to live, and had simply died out, having ceased to care any longer whether SHE lived or not. 


Rhetoric
RHETORIC grain, leaves, etc.

  • Hyperbole…dresses that were always miles too long.…those voices belonged to a world separated by aeons from our neat world


  • A. Exaggeration by using numerals: grain, leaves, etc. 1. Thanks a million.2. The middle eastern bazaar takes you back hundreds even thousands of years.3. I see the ten thousand villages of Russia where the means of existence is wrung so hardly from the soil.


  • B. Exaggeration by using comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives1. Sherlock Holmes is considered by many people as the greatest detective in fictional literature.2. There was never a child who loved her father more than I do.3. I never saw a prettier sight.4. You write ten times better than any man in the class.


  • C. Exaggeration by using extravagant adjectives: of adjectives1. … where goods of every conceivable kind are sold. 2. The burnished copper containers catches the light of innumerable lamps and braziers. 3. The apprentices were incredibly young.


  • D. Exaggeration by using noun or verb phrases: of adjectives1. It is a vast cavern of a room, so thick with the dust of centuries that the mud-brick walls and vaulted roof are only dimly visible.2. I am already in debt again, and moving heaven and earth to save myself from exposure and destruction. 我又负了许多债,于是就得想尽一切办法,不露出马脚,不把自己毁掉。(马克∙土温,《傻瓜威尔逊》)3. The sister cried her eyes out at the loss of the necklace.


  • 4. They beat him into all the colors of rainbow. of adjectives打得五颜六色,浑身挂彩5. Her dress was always miles too long.6. I was scared to death.7. I sat there for a while, frozen with horror.8. She was so beautiful--- her beauty made the bright world dim.


  • Metaphor of adjectives…the filigree of the spruce treesdaughter of the forestI tried another lineA streak of amber


  • Personification of adjectivesThe two grey squirrels were still there, gossiping…The news that somehow had not found its way into letters.I tried another linea streak of amber


  • Transferred epithet of adjectivesAll around, the spruce trees grew tall and close-set, branches blackly sharp against the sky which was lightened by a cold flickering of stars.I was ashamed, ashamed of my own timidity, the frightened tendency to look the other way.My brother, Roderick, who had not been born when we were here last summer, sat on the car rug in the sunshine and examined a brown spruce core, meticulously turning it round and round in his small and curious hands.


  • Metonymy of adjectivesThose voices belonged to a world separated by aeons from our neat world of summer cottages and the lighted lamps of home. (our modern civilization)Synecdochethe damn bone’s flared up again


Expressions
Expressions of adjectives

  • get mixed up in sth.:   (infml)become involved in or connected with sth.和某事有牵连 例: I don’t want to get mixed up in your affairs.我可不想牵连到你们俩的事情中去。

  • hit out(at sb./sth.):   attack sb./sth.vigorously or violently with words or blows猛烈地抨击或打击(某)/物) 例: In a rousing speech the_President hit out against the trade u- nion.主席在一次言辞激烈的讲话中对工会进行了严厉的批评。


  • flare up:   (of an illness)recur or show sudden burst of light.anger or violence突然激动、发怒等或(指疾病)复发        例: He flares up at the slightest provocation.稍微一激他,他就大发脾气。 My back trouble has flared up again.我的后背又疼起来了。

  • win hands down:   (infml)win easily,by a large margin轻易获胜        例: The local team won hands down.主队以悬殊的比分获胜。


  • set about:   start doing sth light.(不用于被动语态)着手做某事        例: I don’t know how to set about this job. 这工作我不知该如何人手。

  • not give a shit (about sb./sth.):   not care at all毫不关心        例: He doesn’t give a shit about anybody else. 他对别人漠不关心。


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