Experimental illustrations of pattern-forming phenomena:
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Experimental illustrations of pattern-forming phenomena: Examples from Rayleigh-Benard convection, Taylor-vortex flow, and electro convection. Guenter Ahlers Department of Physics University of California Santa Barbara CA USA. z. d. D T. Q. x.

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Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Experimental illustrations of pattern-forming phenomena:

Examples from Rayleigh-Benard convection,

Taylor-vortex flow, and electro convection

  • Guenter Ahlers

  • Department of Physics

  • University of California

  • Santa Barbara CA USA

z

d

DT

Q

x

n = kinematic viscosity

Prandtl number

e = DT/DTc - 1

k = thermal diffusivity

s = n / k


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

k = (q, p)

T = Tcond + dT sin(p z) exp i(q x + p y ) exp( s t )


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Neutral curve


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

e = 0

k = (q, p)


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Fluctuations

Patterns

Equilibrium

Paramagnet

Ferromagnet

<dT>

Temperature

Q = dT sin( p z ) exp[ i ( q x + p y ) ]


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Fluctuations well below the onset of convection

Structure factor =

square of the modulus

of the Fourier transform

of the snapshot

Shadowgraph image of the pattern. The sample

is viewed from the top.In essence, the method

shows the temperature field.

p

p

Snapshot in real space

R / Rc = 0.94

Movie by Jaechul Oh


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

dST ~ k2

e = -0.57

-0.68

-0.78

dST ~ k-4

k

k

Experiment: J. Oh and G.A., cond-mat/0209104.

Linear Theory: J. Ortiz de Zarate and J. Sengers, Phys. Rev. E 66, 036305 (2002).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

C(k, t) = < ST (k, t) ST (k, t+ t) > / < ST2 (k, t) >

C = C0 exp( -s(k) t )

-0.14

s(k)

e = -0.70

J. Oh, J. Ortiz de Zarate, J. Sengers, and G.A., Phys. Rev. E 69, 021106 (2004).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Just above onset, straight rolls are stable.

Theory: A. Schluter, D. Lortz, and F. Busse, J. Fluid Mech. 23, 129 (1965).

This experiment: K.M.S. Bajaj, N. Mukolobwiez, N. Currier, and G.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5282 (1999).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

DT

k

F. Busse and R.M. Clever, J. Fluid Mech. 91, 319 (1979); and references therein.


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Taylor vortex flow

First experiments and linear stability analysis by G.I. Taylor in Cambridge


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

time

Inner cylinder speed

The rigid top and bottom pin the phase of the

vortices. They also lead to the formation of a

sub-critical Ekman vortex.

M.A. Dominguez-Lerma, D.S. Cannell and G.A., Phys. Rev. A 34, 4956 (1986).

G. A., D.S. Cannell, M.A. Dominguez-Lerma, and R. Heinrichs,

Physica, 23D, 202 (1986).

A.M. Rucklidge and A.R. Champneys, Physica A 191, 282 (2004).

In the interior, a vortex pair is lost or gained

when the system leaves the stable band of states.

Theory:

W. Eckhaus, Studies in nonlinear stability theory, Springer, NY, 1965.

Experiment:

M.A. Dominguez-Lerma, D.S. Cannell and G.A., Phys. Rev. A 34, 4956 (1986).

G. A., D.S. Cannell, M.A. Dominguez-Lerma, and R. Heinrichs,

Physica, 23D, 202 (1986).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

( k - kc ) / kc

M.A. Dominguez-Lerma, D.S. Cannell and G.A., Phys. Rev. A 34, 4956 1986.


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

At the free upper surface

the pinning of the phase

is weak and a vortex

pair can be gained or

lost. The Eckhaus

Instability is never

reached.

Experiment:

M. Linek and G.A.,

Phys. Rev. E 58, 3168 (1998).

Theory:

M.C. Cross, P.G. Daniels,

P.C. Hohenberg, and E.D. Siggia,

J. Fluid Mech. 127, 155 (1983).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Free upper surface

Rigid

boundaries


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Theory:

H. Riecke and H.G. Paap, Phys. Rev. A 33, 547 (1986).

M.C. Cross, Phys. Rev. A 29, 391 (1984).

P.M. Eagles, Phys. Rev. A 31, 1955 (1985).

Experiment:

M.A. Dominguez-Lerma, D.S. Cannell and G.A., Phys. Rev. A 34, 4956 (1986).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Back to Rayleigh-Benard !

Shadowgraph image of

the pattern. The sample

is viewed from the top.

In essence, the method

shows the temperature

field.

Wavenumber

Selection by

Domain wall


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

J.R. Royer, P. O'Neill, N. Becker, and G.A., Phys. Rev. E 70 , 036313 (2004).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Experiment:

J. Royer, P. O’Neill, N. Becker, and G.A., Phys. Rev. E 70, 036313 (2004).

Theory:

J. Buell and I. Catton, Phys. Fluids 29, 1 (1986)

A.C. Newell, T. Passot, and M. Souli, J. Fluid Mech. 220, 187 (1990).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

W†= 0

V. Croquette, Contemp. Phys. 30, 153 (1989).

Y. Hu, R. Ecke, and G. A., Phys. Rev. E 48, 4399 (1993);

Phys. Rev. E 51, 3263 (1995).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

W†= 0


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Movie by N. Becker


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Movie by Nathan Becker

W†= 0

Spiral-defect chaos:

S.W. Morris, E. Bodenschatz, D.S. Cannell, and G.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2026 (1993).


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

W = 2p f d2/ n

d

DT

Q

n = kinematic viscosity

Prandtl number

e = DT/DTc - 1

k = thermal diffusivity

s = n / k


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Wc < W†= 16

G. Kuppers and D. Lortz, J. Fluid Mech. 35, 609 (1969).

R.M. Clever and F. Busse, J. Fluid Mech. 94, 609 (1979).

Y.-C. Hu, R. Ecke, and G.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 , 5040 (1995);

Y. Hu, R. E. Ecke, and G.A., Phys. Rev. E 55, 6928 (1997)

Y. Hu, W. Pesch, G.A., and R.E. Ecke, Phys. Rev. E 58, 5821 (1998).

Movies by Nathan Becker


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Electroconvection in a nematic liquid crystal

Planar

Alignment

Director

V = V0 cos( wt )

Convection for V0 > Vc

e = (V0 / Vc) 2 - 1

Anisotropic !


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Oblique rolls

zig

zag

Director


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

X.-L. Qiu + G.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 087802 (2005)


Experimental illustrations of pattern forming phenomena

Rayleigh-Benard convection

Fluctuations and linear growth rates below onset

Rotational invariance

Neutral curve

Straight rolls above onset

Stability range above onset, Busse Balloon

Taylor-vortec flow

Eckhaus instability

Narrower band due to reduced phase pinning at a free surface

Wavenumber selection by a ramp in epsilon

More Rayleigh-Benard

Wavenumber selection by a domain wall

Wavenumber determined by skewed-varicose instability

Onset of spiral-defect chaos

Rayleigh-Benard with rotation

Kuepers-Lortz or domain chaos

Electro-convection in a nematic

Loss of rotational invariance

Summary:


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