Theories of personality including Psychodynamic, Behavioristic, Traits and Humanistic
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Any psychological characteristic you have.
Behavior patterns that are consistent & characteristic & descriptive of you.
Your unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, & behavior that continues over time & across situations.
Included are: perceptual dispositions, consistencies in reactions, values, abilities, motives, defenses, temperament, identity, personal style, thoughts, feelings, & environmental relationships.
A core concept in psychology
Psychic Determinism & the Unconscious
The Structure of the Mind
The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious
The Structure of Personality
The Id, Ego, & Superego
Id Ego Superego
Freudian Slip ...
The main ego defense. Acting as if an emotionally painful experience doesn’t exist.
Refusing to perceive that an unpleasant thing doesn’t exist.
Taking out your feelings on those who had nothing to do with them.
Separating yourself from your emotions using formal, logical, intellectual means.
Increasing your feelings of self-worth by identifying with (a) person(s) or institution of note.
“If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em.”
Placing the blame for your difficulties, shortcomings, unethical desires or unacceptable impulses on to others.
Hiding anxiety with the opposite emotion and exaggerating the opposite (e.g. love for hate; submission for aggression).
Justifying your actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations rather than acknowledging your true motives or desires.
Retreating to an earlier developmental level with less mature response & usually a lower level of aspiration.
Gratifying your frustrated desires in substituted socially acceptable activities.
Oral StageChild lives & loves through its mouth. Taking
Birth – 2 yrs.through the mouth is behavioral model for
aquisitiveness. Holding on is behavioral model for refusal & pessimism. Fixation can lead to excessive smoking.
Anal StageToilet training is important at this time. The
2 – 3 yrs.manner in which the child is toilet trained is the model for generosity. Child learns to “give” (feces) in order to receive something (approval). Anal Retentive & Anal Expulsive fixations.
Phallic StageMale child wishes to control mother & get rid
3 – 6 yrs.of father (rival). Discovers he has a “special organ.” Assumes all females were castrated. Oedipus complex in males, Electra complex in females. Identifies with the opposite-sex parent to control same-sex parent. Fixation leads to homosexuality.
LatencyRepression of sexual feelings. Little interest is
Stageexpressed in the opposite sex. Prefers the
6 -12 yrs.Company of the same sex. Fixation can lead to celibacy.
Hetero-The repressed feelings for the opposite sex
sexual oremerge with the natural flow of the hormones.
GenitalThe person seeks a mate of the opposite sex
Stagewith which to live.
12+ yrs.How Personality Develops
Personality develops through the drive for “mystical” or “religious” experience.
The Conscious Mind/Ego
The Personal Unconscious
The Collective Unconscious
One who is interested in the inner world of imagination, ideas, & emotions.
Tends to be sensitive, idealistic, or defensive.
One who lives according to external demands, Is oriented toward the objective world, is realistic & socially active.
We’re governed by the conscious need to express & fulfill ourselves as unique individuals
Our basic problem isInsecurity orInferiority.
Compensation for shortcomings
Feelings of Inferiority can mislead you to emphasize your own self-interest instead of uniting with the interests of humanity & feeling part of humanity.
Neurosis & psychosis develop by having insufficient social feelings toward others.
A subjective system that makes experiences meaningful for you & seeks experiences that will fulfill your life-style.
The innate drive for self-realization, completion, & perfection.
The individual characteristic way you learn to express your striving for superiority & pursue your goals.
A mistaken “life-style.”
The conscious compensation to over-come feelings of inferiority.
The position you hold in your family due to your birth.
A general sense of inadequacy, weakness, and helplessness.
Covering up parts of yourself that you consider unacceptable & substituting more desired traits, sometimes in exaggerated form.Important Concepts
Focus was less on the sex drive and more on the role of social & cultural forces in the development of personality.
Importance of early relationships
The parent-child relationship is most important in personality development.
Disturbances in relationships are the cause of psychological problems.
Stronger than libido.
The need for basic security & your response to a real or imagined threat is more important than sex.
To deal with anxiety, adults adopt strategies for coping calledNeurotic Trends.
Submission, aggression, or detachmentThe First Feminine Psychology
The deep-seated anxiety on children associated with feelings of being isolated & helpless in a potentially threatening world.
Deep feelings of resentment children may have toward their parents.
The envy men may harbor toward women for their capacity to bear children.
Horney insisted that women want the same opportunities, the same rights & privileges that society grants to men. Women must be free to find their personal identities, develop their abilities, and pursue careers if they choose.
Expanded Freud’s 5 stages into 8 life-long stages.
Oral-SensoryStageTrust vs. Mistrust Infant learns to trust or mistrust depending on the degree and regularity of Birth – 1 yr. care, love, & affection by caregivers.
Muscular-Anal StageAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Child learns to express their will & independence, exercise
1 – 3 yrs. some control, & make choices. If not will experience Shame & Doubt.
Locomotor-Genital StageInitiative vs. Guilt Assumes responsibilities, initiates activities, & Plan & undertake tasks. If
3 – 6 yrsnot allowed to assume responsibilities feels stupid considered a nuisance, & may develop a sense of guilt.
Latency StageIndustry vs. Inferiority Develops pride in accomplishments; if not encouraged or rebuffed may 6 – Pubertydevelop a sense of inferiority.
Puberty & Adolescence Stage Identity vs. Identity Confusion Needs to belong; acquires a feeling of fidelity; good ego identity Adolescenceimportant before choosing a mate.
Young Adulthood StageIntimacy vs. Isolation Develop a sense of sharing & caring and to commit to another person and 18 – Middle Agerelationship; avoiding intimacy brings isolation.
Adulthood StageGenerativity vs. Stagnation Must find a way to contribute to the development of the next
Middle Agegeneration or become self-absorbed & emotionally impoverished.
Maturity StageIntegrity vs. Despair Reviews life, if satisfied & feeling sense of accomplishment will experience Old Ageego integrity, if not may sink into despair.
Saw humans as innately good with positive strivings toward self-fulfillment.
The emphasis is on free-will, self-awareness, & self-growth.
We all have an innate urge toself-actualize.
This urge shapes our development.
We have the potential to become a fully-functioning person.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Your total experience
The portion of your personality consisting of the perceptions of “I” or “me.”
The kind of person you’d like to be.
Who you are with your “ego” stripped away & you’re free to be yourself.
Complete & total acceptance of another
Cardinal Traits – the more pervasive dimensions that define your general personality
Central Traits – personality characteristics that have a widespread influence on your behavior across situations.
Secondary Traits – specific traits that influence behavior in relatively few situations.
Committed to social justice
Competitive, generous, independent, funny
Preferences in music, clothes, etc.Traits Theories
Surface Traits – personality traits at the surface level that can be seen in behavioral observations.
Source Traits – deep level traits that aren’t observed in behavior but must be inferred based on underlying relationships among surface traits.
Introversion-extraversion – the tendency to be solitary & reserved or outgoing & sociable.
Neuroticism – the tendency to be emotionally unstable & given to worry & anxiety.
Psychoticism –the tendency to be perceived as cold & antisocial.
Paul Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae
Organizes personality traits into opposing factors and describes differences in personality using five categories. These traits have been see in cultures as widely divergent as American, German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese.
Factor Description of Traits
Extraversion vs. Sociable vs. Withdrawn
IntroversionFun-loving vs. Sober
Friendly vs. Aloof
Adventurous vs. Cautious
Neuroticism vs.Anxious vs. Relaxed
StabilityInsecure vs. Secure
Emotional vs. Calm
Self-pitying vs. Content
Openness vs. ClosedOriginal vs. Conventional
To ExperienceImaginative vs. Down-to-Earth
Broad vs. Narrow Interests
Open vs. Closed to New Ideas
Agreeableness vs.Good-natured vs. Irritable
AntagonismSoft-hearted vs. Ruthless
Courteous vs. Rude
Sympathetic vs. Tough-minded
Conscientiousness vs.Well-organized vs. Disorderly
UndirectednessDependable vs. Undependable
Hardworking vs. Lazy
Ambitious vs. EasygoingThe “Big Five”
Expectancies – personal predictions about the outcomes of behavior. Expectancies produce effects on behavior.
Subjective Value – the importance you place on desired outcomes.
Locus of Control – whether your efforts can bring about desired outcomes. Locus of control determines if you feel your decisions, behaviors, etc. are controlled inside or outside of yourself.
Self-efficacy – expecting that your efforts will be successful.
Reciprocal Determinism – cognitions, behaviors, & environmental factors influence each other.
Outcome Expectancies – Personal predictions about the outcomes of your behavior.