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Psych 1: Personality PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Theories of personality including Psychodynamic, Behavioristic, Traits and Humanistic

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Psych 1: Personality

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Personality


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What is Personality?

  • A general pattern of your behavior, including traits (which characterize you), and modes of adjustment.

  • Traits

    Any psychological characteristic you have.

    Behavior patterns that are consistent & characteristic & descriptive of you.

    Your unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, & behavior that continues over time & across situations.

    Included are: perceptual dispositions, consistencies in reactions, values, abilities, motives, defenses, temperament, identity, personal style, thoughts, feelings, & environmental relationships.

  • Individual Differences

    A core concept in psychology


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Theories of Personality

  • Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud

    Basic Concepts:

    Psychic Determinism & the Unconscious

    The Structure of the Mind

    The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious

    The Structure of Personality

    The Id, Ego, & Superego


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Id Ego Superego

Id Ego Superego


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You've heard of the

Freudian Slip ...


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The Ego Defenses

  • Repression

    The main ego defense. Acting as if an emotionally painful experience doesn’t exist.

  • Denial

    Refusing to perceive that an unpleasant thing doesn’t exist.

  • Displacement

    Taking out your feelings on those who had nothing to do with them.

  • Intellectualization

    Separating yourself from your emotions using formal, logical, intellectual means.

  • Identification

    Increasing your feelings of self-worth by identifying with (a) person(s) or institution of note.

  • Introjection

    “If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em.”


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The Ego Defenses

  • Projection

    Placing the blame for your difficulties, shortcomings, unethical desires or unacceptable impulses on to others.

  • Reaction Formation

    Hiding anxiety with the opposite emotion and exaggerating the opposite (e.g. love for hate; submission for aggression).

  • Rationalization

    Justifying your actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations rather than acknowledging your true motives or desires.

  • Regression

    Retreating to an earlier developmental level with less mature response & usually a lower level of aspiration.

  • Sublimation

    Gratifying your frustrated desires in substituted socially acceptable activities.


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StageDescription

Oral StageChild lives & loves through its mouth. Taking

Birth – 2 yrs.through the mouth is behavioral model for

aquisitiveness. Holding on is behavioral model for refusal & pessimism. Fixation can lead to excessive smoking.

Anal StageToilet training is important at this time. The

2 – 3 yrs.manner in which the child is toilet trained is the model for generosity. Child learns to “give” (feces) in order to receive something (approval). Anal Retentive & Anal Expulsive fixations.

Phallic StageMale child wishes to control mother & get rid

3 – 6 yrs.of father (rival). Discovers he has a “special organ.” Assumes all females were castrated. Oedipus complex in males, Electra complex in females. Identifies with the opposite-sex parent to control same-sex parent. Fixation leads to homosexuality.

StageDescription

LatencyRepression of sexual feelings. Little interest is

Stageexpressed in the opposite sex. Prefers the

6 -12 yrs.Company of the same sex. Fixation can lead to celibacy.

Hetero-The repressed feelings for the opposite sex

sexual oremerge with the natural flow of the hormones.

GenitalThe person seeks a mate of the opposite sex

Stagewith which to live.

12+ yrs.

How Personality Develops


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Analytical Personality Theory

  • Carl Jung

    Personality develops through the drive for “mystical” or “religious” experience.

  • Layers of the Psyche

    The Conscious Mind/Ego

    The Personal Unconscious

    The Collective Unconscious


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What are Archetypes?

  • Primordial universal images inherited from the past (human, prehuman, & animal) that represent the common experience of all humans and are the foundation of the whole personality.

  • The most important archetypes are: anima, animus, shadow, & persona.


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Some Common Archetypes


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Polarities in Personality

  • Introversion

    One who is interested in the inner world of imagination, ideas, & emotions.

    Tends to be sensitive, idealistic, or defensive.

  • Extraversion

    One who lives according to external demands, Is oriented toward the objective world, is realistic & socially active.


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Alfred Adler

We’re governed by the conscious need to express & fulfill ourselves as unique individuals

Our basic problem isInsecurity orInferiority.

Compensation for shortcomings

Feelings of Inferiority can mislead you to emphasize your own self-interest instead of uniting with the interests of humanity & feeling part of humanity.

Neurosis & psychosis develop by having insufficient social feelings toward others.

Compensation

Individual Psychology


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The Self

A subjective system that makes experiences meaningful for you & seeks experiences that will fulfill your life-style.

Creative Self

The innate drive for self-realization, completion, & perfection.

Life-style

The individual characteristic way you learn to express your striving for superiority & pursue your goals.

Neurosis

A mistaken “life-style.”

Personality

The conscious compensation to over-come feelings of inferiority.

Birth order

The position you hold in your family due to your birth.

Inferiority complex

A general sense of inadequacy, weakness, and helplessness.

Compensation

Covering up parts of yourself that you consider unacceptable & substituting more desired traits, sometimes in exaggerated form.

Important Concepts


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Karen Horney

Focus was less on the sex drive and more on the role of social & cultural forces in the development of personality.

Importance of early relationships

The parent-child relationship is most important in personality development.

Disturbances in relationships are the cause of psychological problems.

Anxiety

Stronger than libido.

The need for basic security & your response to a real or imagined threat is more important than sex.

Neurotic trends

To deal with anxiety, adults adopt strategies for coping calledNeurotic Trends.

Submission, aggression, or detachment

The First Feminine Psychology


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Important Concepts

  • Basic Anxiety

    The deep-seated anxiety on children associated with feelings of being isolated & helpless in a potentially threatening world.

  • Basic Hostility

    Deep feelings of resentment children may have toward their parents.

  • Womb Envy

    The envy men may harbor toward women for their capacity to bear children.


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The Feminine Side

Horney insisted that women want the same opportunities, the same rights & privileges that society grants to men. Women must be free to find their personal identities, develop their abilities, and pursue careers if they choose.


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Psychosocial Personality Theory

  • Erik Erikson

    Expanded Freud’s 5 stages into 8 life-long stages.

    Oral-SensoryStageTrust vs. Mistrust Infant learns to trust or mistrust depending on the degree and regularity of Birth – 1 yr. care, love, & affection by caregivers.

    Muscular-Anal StageAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Child learns to express their will & independence, exercise

    1 – 3 yrs. some control, & make choices. If not will experience Shame & Doubt.

    Locomotor-Genital StageInitiative vs. Guilt Assumes responsibilities, initiates activities, & Plan & undertake tasks. If

    3 – 6 yrsnot allowed to assume responsibilities feels stupid considered a nuisance, & may develop a sense of guilt.

    Latency StageIndustry vs. Inferiority Develops pride in accomplishments; if not encouraged or rebuffed may 6 – Pubertydevelop a sense of inferiority.

    Puberty & Adolescence Stage Identity vs. Identity Confusion Needs to belong; acquires a feeling of fidelity; good ego identity Adolescenceimportant before choosing a mate.

    Young Adulthood StageIntimacy vs. Isolation Develop a sense of sharing & caring and to commit to another person and 18 – Middle Agerelationship; avoiding intimacy brings isolation.

    Adulthood StageGenerativity vs. Stagnation Must find a way to contribute to the development of the next

    Middle Agegeneration or become self-absorbed & emotionally impoverished.

    Maturity StageIntegrity vs. Despair Reviews life, if satisfied & feeling sense of accomplishment will experience Old Ageego integrity, if not may sink into despair.


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Humanistic Personality Theory

  • Carl Rogers

    Saw humans as innately good with positive strivings toward self-fulfillment.

    The emphasis is on free-will, self-awareness, & self-growth.

    We all have an innate urge toself-actualize.

    This urge shapes our development.

    We have the potential to become a fully-functioning person.

Unconditional Positive Regard


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Important Concepts

  • Phenomenal field

    Your total experience

  • Self

    The portion of your personality consisting of the perceptions of “I” or “me.”

  • Phenomenal self

    Your self-image

  • Ideal self

    The kind of person you’d like to be.

  • True self

    Who you are with your “ego” stripped away & you’re free to be yourself.

  • Unconditional Positive Regard

    Complete & total acceptance of another


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A Hierarchy of Traits

Gordon Allport

Cardinal Traits – the more pervasive dimensions that define your general personality

Central Traits – personality characteristics that have a widespread influence on your behavior across situations.

Secondary Traits – specific traits that influence behavior in relatively few situations.

Examples

Committed to social justice

Competitive, generous, independent, funny

Preferences in music, clothes, etc.

Traits Theories


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More Trait Theories

  • Mapping the Personality

    Raymond Cattell

  • 2 Basic Levels of Traits:

    Surface Traits – personality traits at the surface level that can be seen in behavioral observations.

    Source Traits – deep level traits that aren’t observed in behavior but must be inferred based on underlying relationships among surface traits.


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A Simpler Trait Theory

  • 3 Factors

    Hans Eysenick

    Introversion-extraversion – the tendency to be solitary & reserved or outgoing & sociable.

    Neuroticism – the tendency to be emotionally unstable & given to worry & anxiety.

    Psychoticism –the tendency to be perceived as cold & antisocial.


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The Five Factor Model

Paul Costa, Jr. & Robert McCrae

Organizes personality traits into opposing factors and describes differences in personality using five categories. These traits have been see in cultures as widely divergent as American, German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese.

Factor Description of Traits



Extraversion vs. Sociable vs. Withdrawn

IntroversionFun-loving vs. Sober

Friendly vs. Aloof

Adventurous vs. Cautious

Neuroticism vs.Anxious vs. Relaxed

StabilityInsecure vs. Secure

Emotional vs. Calm

Self-pitying vs. Content

Openness vs. ClosedOriginal vs. Conventional

To ExperienceImaginative vs. Down-to-Earth

Broad vs. Narrow Interests

Open vs. Closed to New Ideas

Agreeableness vs.Good-natured vs. Irritable

AntagonismSoft-hearted vs. Ruthless

Courteous vs. Rude

Sympathetic vs. Tough-minded

Conscientiousness vs.Well-organized vs. Disorderly

UndirectednessDependable vs. Undependable

Hardworking vs. Lazy

Ambitious vs. Easygoing

The “Big Five”


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Cognitive Social-Learning View

  • Locus of Control

    Julian Rotter

    Expectancies – personal predictions about the outcomes of behavior. Expectancies produce effects on behavior.

    Subjective Value – the importance you place on desired outcomes.

    Locus of Control – whether your efforts can bring about desired outcomes. Locus of control determines if you feel your decisions, behaviors, etc. are controlled inside or outside of yourself.

    Self-efficacy – expecting that your efforts will be successful.


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Cognitive Social-Learning View

  • Reciprocal Determinism & Expectancies

    Albert Bandura

    Reciprocal Determinism – cognitions, behaviors, & environmental factors influence each other.

    Outcome Expectancies – Personal predictions about the outcomes of your behavior.


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Assessing Personality


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