Psychopathy
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PSYCHOPATHY. WATCH YOUR BACK!. Powerpoint overhaul by Nick Bloom & Andrew Blonde Original powerpoint by Fulero & Wrightsman. Psychopathy Defined. A specific form of personality disorder. What is a Personality Disorder?. Psychopathy Defined. Personality Disorders Defined by DSM-IV-TR:

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PSYCHOPATHY

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PSYCHOPATHY

WATCH YOUR BACK!

Powerpoint overhaul by Nick Bloom & Andrew Blonde

Original powerpoint by Fulero & Wrightsman


Psychopathy Defined

  • A specific form of personality disorder.

  • What is a Personality Disorder?


Psychopathy Defined

  • Personality Disorders Defined by DSM-IV-TR:

    • An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture.

      • Pattern manifested in two (or more) areas:

        • Cognition (ways of perceiving and interpreting self, others, and events)

        • Affectivity (range, intensity, lability & appropriateness of emotions)

        • Interpersonal function

        • Impulse control


Psychopathy Defined

  • Personality Disorders Defined by DSM-IV-TR:

    • The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.

    • The enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.


Psychopathy Defined

  • Personality Disorders Defined by DSM-IV-TR:

    • The pattern is stable and of long duration and its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood.

    • The enduring pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder.

    • The enduring pattern is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition.


The Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

    • 1-Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.


The Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

    • 2- Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.

    • 3- Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead.


The Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

    • 4- Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.

    • 5- Reckless disregard fro safety of self or others.


The Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

    • 6- Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.

    • 7- Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.


Psychopathy Defined

  • Hare (1996): “A socially devastating disorder”…”intraspecies predators.”

    • Psychopathy includes antisocial behaviors and interpersonal and affective components.

    • It is not always behavior that is criminal in nature (“Snakes in Suits”).


Psychopathy: Core Traits

  • Cleckley (1941) Mask of Sanity

    • 16 Characteristics:

      • Superficial charm and good intelligence

      • Absence of delusion and other signs of irrational thinking

      • Absence of nervousness

      • Unreliability

      • Untruthfulness and insincerity

      • Lack of remorse or shame

      • Inadequately motivated antisocial behavior

      • Poor judgment and failure to learn from experiences


Psychopathy: Core Traits

  • Cleckley (1941) Mask of Sanity

    • 16 Characteristics:

      • Pathological egocentricity and incapacity for love

      • General poverty in major affective reactions

      • Specific loss of insight

      • Unresponsiveness in general interpersonal relations

      • Fantastic and uninviting behavior with drink and sometimes without

      • Suicide rarely carried out

      • Sex life interpersonal, trivial, and poorly integrated

      • Failure to follow any life plan


Robert Hare: The Psychopathy Checklist

Factor 1: Interpersonal/Affective Factor

  • Glibness/Superficial charm

  • Pathological lying

  • Absence of nervousness

  • Lack of remorse or guilt

  • Shallow affect

  • Callous/lack of empathy

  • Failure to Accept Responsibility for actions

  • Conning/Manipulative


Robert Hare: The Psychopathy Checklist

Factor 2: Socially Deviant/Antisocial Lifestyle

  • Lack of realistic, long-tem goals

  • Impulsivity

  • Irresponsibility

  • Failure to Accept Responsibility for actions

  • Need for stimulation

  • Parasitic lifestyle

  • Poor behavioral control

  • Early behavioral problems

  • Juvenile delinquency

  • Revocation of conditional release


Robert Hare: The Psychopathy Checklist

Additional items that do not load on a factor

  • Promiscuous sexuality

  • Many short-term marital relationships

  • Criminal versatility

    • PCL-R 20 items. Each items scored 0, 1, 2.

    • Cutoff score of 30 (some studies 25).


Are there types of Psychopaths?

  • Primary Psychopathy

    • Prototypical type caused by an inherent deficit:

      • Commits antisocial acts

      • Is irresponsible

      • Lacks empathy

      • Superficially charming


Are there types of Psychopaths?

  • Secondary Psychopathy

    • This type develops because of “social disadvantage, low intelligence, neurotic anxiety, or other psychopathology.”

      Key distinction: Lack of anxiety in Primary. Anxiety drives behavior of Secondary


Is Psychopathy different from ASPD?

  • Both constructs highly correlated (r. =.55 - .65)

  • Psychopathy is not listed as a disorder in the DSM-IV-TR

  • International Classification of diseases does list a “dissocial personality disorder”


Is Psychopathy different from ASPD?

  • DSM-IV-TR focuses on objective behaviors

  • Psychopathy includes behaviors (Factor 1) and Interpersonal/Affective characteristics (Factor 2).

  • Conclusion: Psychopathy diagnosis is more narrow and specific than ASPD


Statistics

  • Prevalence rates for:

    General. Public ASPD 3-5%Psychopathy1%

    Prison Populations ASPD 50-80%Psychopathy15-30%

    Not all psychopaths have ASPD (only 90%)

    15 – 30% of people with ASPD suffer from Psychopathy


Successful Psychopaths: Snakes in Suits

  • Successful or white-collar psychopaths have higher IQ’s, higher education levels, from higher SES background.

  • Found in corporations,

    sales, or political offices.

Are you involved with a Psychopath?

http://www.crisiscounseling.com/Articles/Psychopath.htm


The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • General Violence and Criminal Behavior

    • Psychopathy is strong predictor of future violence.

      When predicting risk of

      future violence. Psychopathy

      Is the biggest risk factor.


The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • General Violence and Criminal Behavior

    • Significant relationship between Psychopathy and general criminal recidivism.

    • Significant relationship between Psychopathy and violent recidivism.

      Salekin et al. 1996


The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • General Violence and Criminal Behavior

    • Psychopathy, unlike ASPD, does not diminish (burnout) with age.

    • Psychopaths appear to commit higher rates of violence than non psychopaths even after age 40.

      Harris, Rice, & Cormier. 1991


The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • General Violence and Criminal Behavior

    • Instrumental Violence versus Reactive Violence

    • Instrumental Violence- pursued with clearly defined goal-planned by Psychopathy.

    • Reactive Violence-perpetrated out of emotion or passion.


The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • Sexual Violence

    • Psychopathy predicts sexual recidivism among rapist and child molesters and related to sexual arousal in general.

    • High PCL-R scorers show more frequent and severe levels of violent sexual offenses.


The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • Violence in Civil Psychiatric Patients

    • The risk of violence among civil psychiatric patients is much lower than general offenders.

    • However, Psychopathy is a strong predictor of violence in civil psychiatric samples..


The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • Violence Among Domestic Violence Perpetrators

    • Psychopathy is not a strong statistical predictor of domestic violence.


Other Facts about Psychopaths

  • Interpersonal/Affective Aspects

    • Deficits in ability to sustain human connection

    • Less sensitive to emotional expression

    • Stories generated more superficial and void of deep meaning

    • Fewer behavioral gestures

    • Difficulty processing and understanding emotion

      • Particularly negative emotion

      • Sham emotions used to control individual or situation.


Other Facts about Psychopaths

  • Cognitive and Learning Deficits

    • Difficulty learning from their mistakes

      • Problem with passive avoidance learning—an inability to learn from behaviors that punish.

      • It may be that they are hypersensitive to rewards leading to a narrowed attention focus.


Other Facts about Psychopaths

  • Biological Basis fro Psychopathy

    • Variability on physiological measures

      • Reduced fear (heart rate, skin conductance) in anticipation of aversive stimuli.

      • Reduced skin conductance when exposed to distressful stimuli (people crying).


Other Facts about Psychopaths

  • Biological Basis fro Psychopathy

    • Variability on physiological measures

      • Cerebral cortex less active in psychopaths.

      • Activation confined to occipital cortex-process information visually.

      • Psychopaths fail to use frontal cortex, limbic system, amygdala when processing emotional information.


Other Facts about Psychopaths

  • Treatment of Psychopathy

    • Does treatment work?

      • Some say not.

      • Some say treatment makes them worse.

      • Some say more research is needed.


Special Groups and Psychopathy

  • Women

  • Ethnic and Cross-Cultural Issues

  • Children and Adolescents


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