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PSYCHOPATHY. WATCH YOUR BACK!. Powerpoint overhaul by Nick Bloom & Andrew Blonde Original powerpoint by Fulero & Wrightsman. Psychopathy Defined. A specific form of personality disorder. What is a Personality Disorder?. Psychopathy Defined. Personality Disorders Defined by DSM-IV-TR:

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Psychopathy

PSYCHOPATHY

WATCH YOUR BACK!

Powerpoint overhaul by Nick Bloom & Andrew Blonde

Original powerpoint by Fulero & Wrightsman


Psychopathy defined
Psychopathy Defined

  • A specific form of personality disorder.

  • What is a Personality Disorder?


Psychopathy defined1
Psychopathy Defined

  • Personality Disorders Defined by DSM-IV-TR:

    • An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture.

      • Pattern manifested in two (or more) areas:

        • Cognition (ways of perceiving and interpreting self, others, and events)

        • Affectivity (range, intensity, lability & appropriateness of emotions)

        • Interpersonal function

        • Impulse control


Psychopathy defined2
Psychopathy Defined

  • Personality Disorders Defined by DSM-IV-TR:

    • The enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasive across a broad range of personal and social situations.

    • The enduring pattern leads to clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.


Psychopathy defined3
Psychopathy Defined

  • Personality Disorders Defined by DSM-IV-TR:

    • The pattern is stable and of long duration and its onset can be traced back at least to adolescence or early adulthood.

    • The enduring pattern is not better accounted for as a manifestation or consequence of another mental disorder.

    • The enduring pattern is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition.


The antisocial personality disorder
The Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

    • 1-Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.


The antisocial personality disorder1
The Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

    • 2- Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.

    • 3- Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead.


The antisocial personality disorder2
The Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

    • 4- Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.

    • 5- Reckless disregard fro safety of self or others.


The antisocial personality disorder3
The Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

    • 6- Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.

    • 7- Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.


Psychopathy defined4
Psychopathy Defined

  • Hare (1996): “A socially devastating disorder”…”intraspecies predators.”

    • Psychopathy includes antisocial behaviors and interpersonal and affective components.

    • It is not always behavior that is criminal in nature (“Snakes in Suits”).


Psychopathy core traits
Psychopathy: Core Traits

  • Cleckley (1941) Mask of Sanity

    • 16 Characteristics:

      • Superficial charm and good intelligence

      • Absence of delusion and other signs of irrational thinking

      • Absence of nervousness

      • Unreliability

      • Untruthfulness and insincerity

      • Lack of remorse or shame

      • Inadequately motivated antisocial behavior

      • Poor judgment and failure to learn from experiences


Psychopathy core traits1
Psychopathy: Core Traits

  • Cleckley (1941) Mask of Sanity

    • 16 Characteristics:

      • Pathological egocentricity and incapacity for love

      • General poverty in major affective reactions

      • Specific loss of insight

      • Unresponsiveness in general interpersonal relations

      • Fantastic and uninviting behavior with drink and sometimes without

      • Suicide rarely carried out

      • Sex life interpersonal, trivial, and poorly integrated

      • Failure to follow any life plan


Robert hare the psychopathy checklist
Robert Hare: The Psychopathy Checklist

Factor 1: Interpersonal/Affective Factor

  • Glibness/Superficial charm

  • Pathological lying

  • Absence of nervousness

  • Lack of remorse or guilt

  • Shallow affect

  • Callous/lack of empathy

  • Failure to Accept Responsibility for actions

  • Conning/Manipulative


Robert hare the psychopathy checklist1
Robert Hare: The Psychopathy Checklist

Factor 2: Socially Deviant/Antisocial Lifestyle

  • Lack of realistic, long-tem goals

  • Impulsivity

  • Irresponsibility

  • Failure to Accept Responsibility for actions

  • Need for stimulation

  • Parasitic lifestyle

  • Poor behavioral control

  • Early behavioral problems

  • Juvenile delinquency

  • Revocation of conditional release


Robert hare the psychopathy checklist2
Robert Hare: The Psychopathy Checklist

Additional items that do not load on a factor

  • Promiscuous sexuality

  • Many short-term marital relationships

  • Criminal versatility

    • PCL-R 20 items. Each items scored 0, 1, 2.

    • Cutoff score of 30 (some studies 25).


Are there types of psychopaths
Are there types of Psychopaths?

  • Primary Psychopathy

    • Prototypical type caused by an inherent deficit:

      • Commits antisocial acts

      • Is irresponsible

      • Lacks empathy

      • Superficially charming


Are there types of psychopaths1
Are there types of Psychopaths?

  • Secondary Psychopathy

    • This type develops because of “social disadvantage, low intelligence, neurotic anxiety, or other psychopathology.”

      Key distinction: Lack of anxiety in Primary. Anxiety drives behavior of Secondary


Is psychopathy different from aspd
Is Psychopathy different from ASPD?

  • Both constructs highly correlated (r. =.55 - .65)

  • Psychopathy is not listed as a disorder in the DSM-IV-TR

  • International Classification of diseases does list a “dissocial personality disorder”


Is psychopathy different from aspd1
Is Psychopathy different from ASPD?

  • DSM-IV-TR focuses on objective behaviors

  • Psychopathy includes behaviors (Factor 1) and Interpersonal/Affective characteristics (Factor 2).

  • Conclusion: Psychopathy diagnosis is more narrow and specific than ASPD


Statistics
Statistics

  • Prevalence rates for:

    General. Public ASPD 3-5% Psychopathy 1%

    Prison Populations ASPD 50-80% Psychopathy 15-30%

    Not all psychopaths have ASPD (only 90%)

    15 – 30% of people with ASPD suffer from Psychopathy


Successful psychopaths snakes in suits
Successful Psychopaths: Snakes in Suits

  • Successful or white-collar psychopaths have higher IQ’s, higher education levels, from higher SES background.

  • Found in corporations,

    sales, or political offices.

Are you involved with a Psychopath?

http://www.crisiscounseling.com/Articles/Psychopath.htm


The relationship of criminal behavior and violence to psychopathy
The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • General Violence and Criminal Behavior

    • Psychopathy is strong predictor of future violence.

      When predicting risk of

      future violence. Psychopathy

      Is the biggest risk factor.


The relationship of criminal behavior and violence to psychopathy1
The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • General Violence and Criminal Behavior

    • Significant relationship between Psychopathy and general criminal recidivism.

    • Significant relationship between Psychopathy and violent recidivism.

      Salekin et al. 1996


The relationship of criminal behavior and violence to psychopathy2
The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • General Violence and Criminal Behavior

    • Psychopathy, unlike ASPD, does not diminish (burnout) with age.

    • Psychopaths appear to commit higher rates of violence than non psychopaths even after age 40.

      Harris, Rice, & Cormier. 1991


The relationship of criminal behavior and violence to psychopathy3
The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • General Violence and Criminal Behavior

    • Instrumental Violence versus Reactive Violence

    • Instrumental Violence- pursued with clearly defined goal-planned by Psychopathy.

    • Reactive Violence-perpetrated out of emotion or passion.


The relationship of criminal behavior and violence to psychopathy4
The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • Sexual Violence

    • Psychopathy predicts sexual recidivism among rapist and child molesters and related to sexual arousal in general.

    • High PCL-R scorers show more frequent and severe levels of violent sexual offenses.


The relationship of criminal behavior and violence to psychopathy5
The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • Violence in Civil Psychiatric Patients

    • The risk of violence among civil psychiatric patients is much lower than general offenders.

    • However, Psychopathy is a strong predictor of violence in civil psychiatric samples..


The relationship of criminal behavior and violence to psychopathy6
The Relationship of Criminal Behavior and Violence to Psychopathy

  • Violence Among Domestic Violence Perpetrators

    • Psychopathy is not a strong statistical predictor of domestic violence.


Other facts about psychopaths
Other Facts about Psychopaths Psychopathy

  • Interpersonal/Affective Aspects

    • Deficits in ability to sustain human connection

    • Less sensitive to emotional expression

    • Stories generated more superficial and void of deep meaning

    • Fewer behavioral gestures

    • Difficulty processing and understanding emotion

      • Particularly negative emotion

      • Sham emotions used to control individual or situation.


Other facts about psychopaths1
Other Facts about Psychopaths Psychopathy

  • Cognitive and Learning Deficits

    • Difficulty learning from their mistakes

      • Problem with passive avoidance learning—an inability to learn from behaviors that punish.

      • It may be that they are hypersensitive to rewards leading to a narrowed attention focus.


Other facts about psychopaths2
Other Facts about Psychopaths Psychopathy

  • Biological Basis fro Psychopathy

    • Variability on physiological measures

      • Reduced fear (heart rate, skin conductance) in anticipation of aversive stimuli.

      • Reduced skin conductance when exposed to distressful stimuli (people crying).


Other facts about psychopaths3
Other Facts about Psychopaths Psychopathy

  • Biological Basis fro Psychopathy

    • Variability on physiological measures

      • Cerebral cortex less active in psychopaths.

      • Activation confined to occipital cortex-process information visually.

      • Psychopaths fail to use frontal cortex, limbic system, amygdala when processing emotional information.


Other facts about psychopaths4
Other Facts about Psychopaths Psychopathy

  • Treatment of Psychopathy

    • Does treatment work?

      • Some say not.

      • Some say treatment makes them worse.

      • Some say more research is needed.


Special groups and psychopathy
Special Groups and Psychopathy Psychopathy

  • Women

  • Ethnic and Cross-Cultural Issues

  • Children and Adolescents