Folk and popular culture
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Folk and Popular Culture. Insanely Rad Scot, with Kilt and Three-Fin Thruster. Woman with Oxcart, Myanmar. The Forbidden City Beijing, China 2004. Beijing, China 2004. Important Terminology.

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Folk and popular culture

Folk and Popular Culture

Insanely Rad Scot, with Kilt and Three-Fin Thruster

Woman with Oxcart, Myanmar


Folk and popular culture

The Forbidden City

Beijing, China2004


Folk and popular culture

Beijing, China2004


Important terminology

Important Terminology

  • Folk Culture – traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation.

  • Popular Culture – found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in personal characteristics.

  • Material Culture – the physical objects produced by a culture in order to meet its material needs: food, clothing, shelter, arts, and recreation. Carl Sauer (Berkeley, 1930s – 1970s).


Important terms

Important Terms

  • Custom – frequent repetition of an act until it becomes characteristic of a group of people..

  • Taboo – a restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.

  • Habit – repetitive act performed by an individual.


Folk and popular culture

Folk Culture – rapidly changing and/or disappearing throughout much of the world.

Guatemalan Market

Portuguese Fishing Boat

Turkish Camel Market


Folk culture

Folk Culture

  • Stable and close knit

  • Usually a rural community

  • Tradition controls

  • Resistance to change

  • Buildings erected without architect or blueprint using locally available building materials

  • anonymous origins, diffuses slowly through migration. Develops over time.

  • Clustered distributions:isolation/lack of interaction breed uniqueness and ties to physical environment.


Folk architecture

FOLK ARCHITECTURE


Folk architecture1

FOLK ARCHITECTURE

Effects on Landscape:usually of limited scale and scope.

Agricultural: fields, terraces, grain storage

Dwellings: historically created from local materials: wood, brick, stone, skins; often uniquely and traditionally arranged; always functionally tied to physical environment.


Folk culture1

Folk Culture

  • Stable and close knit

  • Usually a rural community

  • Tradition controls

  • Resistant to change

  • Buildings erected without architect or blueprint using locally available building materials

  • anonymous origins, diffuses slowly through migration. Develops over time.

  • Clustered distributions:isolation/lack of interaction breed uniqueness and ties to physical environment.


Folk food

FOLK FOOD

How did such differences develop?


Hog production and food cultures

Hog Production and Food Cultures

Fig. 4-6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.


U s house types by region

U.S. House Types by Region

Small towns in different regions of the eastern U.S. have different combinations of five main traditional house types.


Folk and popular culture

North American Folk Culture Regions


Folk and popular culture

Food Taboos: Jews – can’t eat animals that chew cud, that have cloven feet; can’t mix meat and milk, or eat fish lacking fins or scales; Muslims – no pork; Hindus – no cows (used for oxen during monsoon)

Washing Cow in Ganges


Popular culture

Popular Culture

Clothing: Jeans, for example, and have become valuable status symbols in many regions including Asia and Russia despite longstanding folk traditions.


Popular culture1

Popular Culture

Wide Distribution: differences from place to place uncommon, more likely differences at one place over time.

Housing:only small regional variations, more generally there are trends over time

Food: franchises, cargo planes, superhighways and freezer trucks have eliminated much local variation. Limited variations in choice regionally, esp. with alcohol and snacks. Substantial variations by ethnicity.


A mental map of hip hop

A Mental Map of Hip Hop

Fig. 4-3: This mental map places major hip hop performers near other similar performers and in the portion of the country where they performed.


Diffusion of tv 1954 1999

Diffusion of TV, 1954–1999

Television has diffused widely since the 1950s, but some areas still have low numbers of TVs per population.

  • Much media is still state-controlled.

  • Ten Most Censored Countries:

  • North Korea

  • Myanmar (Burma)

  • Turkmenistan

  • Equatorial Guinea

  • Libya

  • Eritrea

  • Cuba

  • Uzbekistan

  • Syria

  • Belarus

  • Source: The Committee to Protect Journalists. www.cpj.org.


Internet connections

Internet Connections

The Internet is diffusing today, but access varies widely.


Internet connections1

Internet Connections

The Internet is diffusing today, but access varies widely. Some countries censor the Internet, but this is much harder to do.


Popular culture2

Popular Culture

Effects on Landscape: creates homogenous, “placeless” (Relph, 1976), landscape

  • Complex network of roads and highways

  • Commercial Structures tend towards ‘boxes’

  • Dwellings may be aesthetically suggestive of older folk traditions

  • Planned and Gated Communities more and more common


Folk and popular culture

Surfing at Disney’s Orlando Typhoon Lagoon

Are places still tied to local landscapes?

Disconnect with landscape: indoor swimming pools? desert surfing?


Folk and popular culture

Dubai’s Indoor Ski Resort

Swimming Pool, West Edmonton Mall, Canada


Folk and popular culture

Muslim Women in Traditional Dress at Indoor Ski Resort


Problems with the globalization of culture

Problems with the Globalization of Culture

Often Destroys Folk Culture – or preserves traditions as museum pieces or tourism gimmicks.

  • Mexican Mariachis; Polynesian Navigators; Cruise Line Simulations

  • Change in Traditional Roles and Values; Polynesian weight problems

Satellite Television, Baja California


Problems with the globalization of popular culture

Problems with the Globalization of Popular Culture

Western Media Imperialism?

  • U.S., Britain, and Japan dominate worldwide media.

  • Glorified consumerism, violence, sexuality, and militarism?

  • U.S. (Networks and CNN) and British (BBC) news media provide/control the dissemination of information worldwide.

  • These networks are unlikely to focus or provide third world perspective on issues important in the LDCs.


Environmental problems with cultural globalization

Environmental Problems with Cultural Globalization

Accelerated Resource Use through Accelerated Consumption

  • Furs: minx, lynx, jaguar, kangaroo, whale, sea otters (18th Century Russians) fed early fashion trends.

  • Consumerism evident in most Western Media fashions, including hip hop and rock and roll.

  • Inefficient over-consumption of Meats (10:1), Poultry (3:1), even Fish (fed other fish and chicken) by meat-eating pop cultures

  • Mineral Extraction for Machines, Plastics and Fuel

  • New larger housing desires and associated energy and water use.

  • Golf courses use valuable water and destroy habitat worldwide.

    Pollution: waste from fuel generation and discarded products, plastics, marketing and packaging materials


Folk and popular culture

Beijing, China

Palm Springs, CA


Marlboro man in egypt

Marlboro Man in Egypt


Folk and popular culture

Forbes Hip Hop Cash Kings, 2007


Folk and popular culture

Fiji


Folk and popular culture

Suburban Sprawl, Arizona


Progress

“Progress?”


Core periphery how can periphery cultures continue

Core-PeripheryHow can Periphery Cultures continue?

Heirarchical Diffusion: How to compete with Popular Culture and all it values?


Folk and popular culture

Indigenous: The first culture and how it developed.Colonization - Dominant Culture: How others coming affected, changed, replaced the indigenous culture and values?


Canada salad bowl

Canada: Salad Bowl


Canada salad bowl acculturation

Canada: Salad Bowl (acculturation)


Folk and popular culture

Vocabulary :Review: Connect to cultureCulture Hearths Diffusion types: Expansion—hierarchical, contagious, stimulus,relocation Sequent occupance Distance-DecayTime-Space Compression


Folk and popular culture

Acculturation

Assimilation

Cultural adaptation

Cultural appropriation

Cultural core/periphery pattern

Commodification

Authenticity

Reterritorializtion

Placelessness

Glocalizaiton

Sequence occupance

diffusion routes

Cultural identity

Neo-Colonialism

Local/Folk Culture

Popular Culture

Indigenous Culture

Dominant Culture (Cultural Imperialism)

Material culture

Non-material culture

Vocabulary to take pictures of and analyze (what is it, importance, make a comment, example in this or another country).


Folk and popular culture

Vocabulary to take pictures of and analyze (what is it, importance, make a comment, example in this or another country).Example:

Cultural Identity: belonging to a culture or group, identifying with it. It is important because we need to feel like we are part of something and not just lost in the giant commercialized, vanilla, culture of the world. As John says in God Grew Tired of Us: A man without a culture is like a man without land. When we lose our cultural identity we have nothing to stand on. In John’s culture, it was very important that people ate in traditional ways and took care of each other. In Canada, groups maintain their own cultures (speak French in Quebec). I think it is sad that as we globalize, we are becoming more and more the same. We are losing our richness. Even our differences are just bought and sold. We all listen to the same music. I’m worried we will not only lose our outwardly differences but our differences in values…becoming totally materialistic!


Thought maybe there are some benefits to the globalization of culture

Thought: Maybe there are some benefits to the globalization of culture?


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